Problems and prospects that hamper the effective poultry production in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state
1.1 Background of the Study
The term poultry is used to describe all the avian species, which include all these birds which are domesticated, feed and generally managed by the farmers. These bird which are domesticated include chicken (fouls) ducks, geese, turkey and pigeons among others these birds are being raised for these birds are being raised for the purpose of obtaining higher gelds of the desired products like eggs, meat feathers and each their droppings which are used as man are by farmers. Nwakile, Okafor, Okafor and Onwuegbane, (1994).
According to Anyauwu and Anyanwu, (2003) Birds are useful in scientific research especially in the field of nutrition and medicine. The useful byproducts are obtained from poultry like the droppings, which contain nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in appreciable quality than in those other farm animals. Also feathers are used in making stuffing pillows and mattresses.
Therefore poultry products are very useful to man, and in some countries, poultry faming is their occupation and major source of income and a sole means of livelihood for the people.
The chicken is the most popular of all other birds in commercial terms. The modern domestic foul called chicken originated from the wild jungle fouls known as Gallus found. In the south East Asia (Nnoka and Ndupu, 2002).
Imoh, (2002), opined that the consumption of animal protein can not be over emphasized, that the 20% of 65% of the consumed estimated minimum protein require meant which is supposed to be consumed by an average Nigerian adult per day should to meet the demand for animal protein consumption there is the need for the development of animal industry especially the fast developing and rapidly multiplying ones such as the poultry especially chickens are very necessary.
Poultry industry has a very bright future both in the temperate zones where it has been developed and in the tropics where its development is very necessary to meet the demand for animal protein. (Anyanwu and Anganwu, 2003). In spite of the development efforts in enhancing the productivity of poultry along with livestock, matching the supply of animal products (especially meat and eggs) with the rate of population growth remains one of the countries greatest problem today (F.A.O.1992).
Ebenebe (2000), stated also that efforts to improve animal protein supply by many innovations in livestock feed and management still failed to solve the problem of inadequate animal protein. The most common specie of poultry birds contributing in one way or the other to the economy of some African nations are the fouls (chicken), turkey, ducks and geese even pigeons of all these poultry species for we is universally more available acceptable without cultural and religious barriers mainly because it provides both the eggs and meat which are extremely regarded by all as a delicacy (Odulkwe, 2001)
There is a serious decline in poultry production and also in the poultry products. As a matter of facts many farmers encounter some serious problem in the farm, which brings about decline in poultry production. Many have abandoned poultry farming for other business because of its high mortality rates. More so, the diseases that attack the poultry birds often compel poultry farmers to sell them off at any amount not considering their profits or losses. This brings about reduction in birds products in the markets thereby encouraging the importation of poultry product (meat and eggs) in order to meet national demand.
The decline in poultry products could be also attributed to environmental factors and frequent out break of poultry diseases. Environmental factors like weather and other hazards, which include excessive rainfall, heat as well as extreme cold temperature also cause high mortality rate on the birds (Odukue, 2001).
According to Eze, (2000), disease of poultry like other animal may be caused by pathogenic organisms like virus, protozoa etc. Disease is any adverse deviation from the normal health status of an organism (Nwauile Et al, 1994). poultry birds need comfort and portion against all these diseases and in order to achieve this, good poultry management practices should be applied. poultry production is capital intensive, the is mach capital is needed to set up a poultry farm, most farmers in Nigeria are still very poor peasant farmers and as a result are unable to engage in the efficient management practices, which are expected of the industry farms, (Eze, 2000).
Because of inadequate collateral to secure the capital, thus constituting major constraints militating against poultry farming. According to Nuorgu, (2003), feed inadequacy has led to reduction in egg and meat production.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In spite of the developmental efforts aimed at enhancing the productivity of poultry, a long with livestock matching the supply of animal products especially meat and eggs is the nations greatest problem today (F.O.A. 1992). Supply of animal protein do not meet its demands and is believed to be due to some factors effecting poultry production (Ebencbe, 2000).
According to Payne, (1997) it has been observed over the years that there are a lot of impediments in the process of rearing birds. The success of poultry industry is generally retarded by some number of factors, especially in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state, which include high cost of feed and inadequate environmental factors (disease) housing system, lack of loan scheme, lack of fund as well as poor managerial skills of the poultry frames.
The statement of the problem is that there is insufficient supply of animal protein products which if not addressed will lead to the nutritional deficiency.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to identify the problems and prospects that hamper the effective poultry production in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state. The specific objectives. Are to achieve the following:
(1) Identify the type of poultry management system in the area.
(2) Identify the problems that militating against poultry production in Ohaukwu local government area.
(3) Identify the effects of funding poultry production in the area.
(4) Identify the socio-economic characteristics of the poultry farmers in Ohaukwu local government area.
(5) To find out the straggles for improving poultry production in Ohaukwu local government area
1.4 Significant of the Study
It is expected that if the problems of poultry production farmers in Ohaukwu local government area, is solved will:
(1) Find solution to the management problems of poultry production farmers in Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state.
(2) Help boost the production of protein in the area.
(3) Help the animal farmers to fight against animal diseases in the area.
(4) Boost economy of the farmer in the area greatly.
(5) Improve the health status of the people in the area.
1.5 Scope of the Study
Specifically this study covered Ohaukwu local government area of Ebonyi state which comprises Ezzangbo Ngbo and Effium. It is estimated that there are about five hundred and twenty (520) poultry farmers in Ohaukwu local government area.
1.6 Research Questions
The research questions were used by the researcher as guides under the following:
- What type of poultry management system is commonly practiced in Ohaukwu local government area?
- What are the problems militating against poultry production in the area?
- How does lack of adequate finance affect the poultry production in the area?
- What are the strategies for improving poultry production of the area?
2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
The review of related literature on poultry production is presented under the following subheadings:
- Origin and domestication of poultry fouls
- Breeds of fouls
- Reproduction performance of fouls
- Feeding of chicken/fouls
- Poultry management system
- The states of poultry production in Ohaukwu local government area.
- Possible problems affecting poetry production
- Economic importance of poultry fouls
- Strategies of improving poultry production
- Review of related empirical studies