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PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY PRINCIPALS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY PRINCIPALS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

The historical background of Nigeria education system, the first European (Western) type of education was introduced in Nigeria in 1842 with the opening of a school in Badagry near Lagos by the Wesleyan Methodist mission. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the different linguistic groups in Nigeria were independent of one another and each had it’s own indigenous system of education whose main aim was to make the individual a

responsible and contributing member of his society. Although learning was graded on the basis of age and ability, it was not formally structured as in the European system. Ocho (2000) says it was normal to initiate a man or woman into adulthood at between the age of 14 and 16 through appropriate initiation rites. The Islamic religion reached the far northern parts of Nigeria from about the 11th century A.D. the Koranic system of education was then introduced in the area.

As in the indigenous system of education, Koranic schools had no formal structure, one progressed at his own rate until the initiation ceremony which marked the end of what may called primary education. In 1842 the first English speaking Christian school was opened. The different missionary bodies, mainly the Roman Catholics, the Anglicans, the Methodist and other protestant missions opened and maintained schools in different parts of the country.

Agwu (1990) opines that each missionary body organized it’s schools in its own way until towards the end of the  19th century when the British colonial government started gradually to introduce financial grants to schools that qualified under its own criteria. In this way a general structure with minor modifications were accepted by most educational agencies, which then included individual Nigerians, unions and communities.

In 1922, the phelps-stokes fund of U.S.A made such a critical appraisal of British colonial policy on education that jolted the colonial government and forced it to review and streamline its education policy in Nigeria and other parts of west Africa. Centralized educational control was introduced although allowance was made for each of the different regions, there are three in number, to organize and structure its own system in its own system in its own way. By the time of independence in 1960 the structure of education was as follows;

  1. Easter Nigeria 8 years of Primary and 5 years of secondary education
  2. Northern Nigeria 4 years elementary, 3 years middle and 6 years of secondary education
  3. Western Nigeria 6 years of primary and 6 years of secondary education
  4. Federal Territory of Lagos 8 years of primary and 5 years of secondary education.

Garland (2001) in his own opinion maintained that, before the Biafran War, (1967) there was no uniform system of educational control in the different regions. In Southern Nigeria and the non-Muslim area of Northern Nigeria, the vast majority of primary and secondary schools were owned and maintained by Christian missionary bodies. The Regional Governments ensured the maintenance of standards through an inspectorate and grants in-aid of education system.

In Northern Nigeria, especially in the predominantly Muslim areas, primary schools were administered by local Education Authorities (L.E.A) while secondary schools were mission schools in all parts of the country. In these schools, sectarian religious education was a most important subject of the curriculum. Dgayi (2000) noted the present structure of the Nigerian Education system.

At the end of the civil war in 1970 plans were initiated to restructure the Nigerian education system. Government took over the mission and voluntary agency school and made them state schools. In 1977 the federal Government put out a document called the National Policy on Education, which was revised in 1981. The Nigerian education system is generally guided by this policy document.

An important effect of this new policy is that the entire educational system is now under the control of the federal government which now makes laws that affect all levels of education in all states of the federation. The new policy introduced a 6-3-3-4 structure of education in line with the American system. This means 6 years of primary, 3 years of junior secondary, 3years of senior secondary and 4 years of university education.

It also recognized a pre-primary education for children age 3years of senior secondary and 4 years of university education. It also recognized a pre-primary education for children age 3 to 5 plus. The new policy was introduced in response to the criticism of the curriculum of Nigeria schools as being too narrow, colonial in mentality and irrelevant to the need and culture of the country  it shifted emphasis to vocational, technical, fine and applied arts

and other subjects from purely academic subject requiring the use of both the head and the hands. Ipage (1992) says that the curriculum at all levels was widened and enriched. Citizenship education received improved attention. From the above, all we are looking at is policy implementation. Policy implementation. This is because of the position of education in the society and the central position of policy implementation in the school organization structure.

Education is the bed rock of any society. The importance of education in the national development can never be look down on. Children must be educated in a social environment to be useful to both themselves and nation. Educating them along these lines cannot be left to chance (federal republic of Nigeria 2004). The government must make sure and adopt statement of ideal, a plan of action with consideration to all the interested people, the learners, parents

and various researchers in education, for instance in order to guide educational practices. This plan of action is called the National Policy on Education. The fact is that education as a dynamic instrument for change, make it imperative that there should be review of this policy from time to time and ensure that, it is relevant to the national needs.

The National Policy on Education used in Nigeria was revised in 1981 and the Nigeria education system is generally guided by this policy document. Today, the dimensions and directions of the educational enterprises have become so complex. Therefore, the management of administration of education has become a central activity to determine the rate and quality of nation’s educational progress. Therefore, it could be seen as expressed by UNESCO (1985) that,

Education is not an isolated activity, but a part, both dependent and dynamic of the social system. Form the on going discussion, it could be observed that the educational system in Nigeria has become more complex, the aims and objectives for setting up educational institutions have been introduced with a view of meeting the critical needs of the modern Nigeria society.

No doubt, the institution of education is created by man to caber for basic functions in the society. Agunwa (2000) opined that the criticisms levied against the country’s colonial system of education after indepence by Nigerians, is that its curriculum was denounced as being largely, nonrelevant to the culture and needs of the country, theoretical and geared mainly towards white – collar jobs.

Nigeria regards the new education system as the most effective instrument for national development (F R N: 2004). In section 1 No 4 of the National Policy on education, Nigeria sets out the feature expectations of education, as follows:

  1. Education is an instrument for national development.
  2. Foster the worth and development of the individual and the society.
  • Equalizes opportunities for all Nigerian children.
  1. Promotes a progressive and united Nigeria. The above feature and measures are laudable, realistic, patriotic and an affirmation of the acceptability of education as an individual and societal necessity that justifies whatever cost is expended in its realization. This is because the 6-3-3-4 secondary education has implication both for primary and higher education.

In as much as the secondary education segment is successfully implemented, the entire package has a very good chance of succeeding in the near feature. The secondary education has its important specific objectives to achieve within the broad national educational frame work. The administrative work at this stage revolves on the person commonly referred to as the school principal” This researcher believes that secondary school administration is a sensitive and tropical issue deserving critical and sustained appraisal.

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY PRINCIPALS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

Statement of the Problem

A critical examination of the problem facing the principal in it’s administration in secondary school, have recently shown that principal administration has contributed a lot to the poor performance of student academic, due to the fact that principal are not competent enough to distinguish their administrative role in secondary school which in returned, drastically post problem of unserious ness into students behaviors towards learning, thereby affecting the students academic performance.

Implementation is paramount in the educational sector. So it become demanded to see a justified change of  principal in the secondary schools  in Orumba south Local Government  Area of Anambra State, who has enormous role to play in the process of shaping the mental ability  of his or her student.

Purpose of the study

The purpose of this study is to look into the problems facing the principals in their poor implementation of new national policy on education among secondary school in Orumba Sourth Local Government Area of Anambra State. This is important because, if there is no effective implementation in our secondary school, then the aims and objectives of secondary education are defeated.

Specifically the study aimed at determining:

  • If financial constraints constitute a problems to the principals in implementation of National policy on Education
  • If inadequate planning hinders the effective implementation of the new national policy on Educational.
  • If inadequate number and quality of staff contribute to the problem for effective administration.
  • If inadequate facilities hinders the effective implementation of national policy on Education.

Significance of the Study

The problems encountered by principal in the implementation of new national policy on education are carefully identified, suggestion will be made for improvement such suggestions will act as a guide for effective Implementation and learning process and incur remedy for effective administration.

  • The study will prepare students for higher education
  • The study will be a preparation for useful living within the society
  • The study will equally be a paramount important to the government in promulgation for educational
  • The preparation for useful living with the society
  • The preparation of student for higher education
  • The study will be a premise for furthermore, the ministry of education, school management of board members and other educational administrative bodies will be better qualified in implementation of secondary school education.

The student will have some benefits from the study because it will help them to appreciate the factors which enhance their academic performance. Finally, if the recommendations made by this study are strictly followed and carried out by those concerned there will be improvement in the principals implementation of the new system on education. It will also be beneficial to the young researchers who may wish to further research in this area. Hence may serve as reference materials.

The Scope of the Study

 This study covered the problem facing the principals in implementation of new national policy on education in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anamba State. the principals in the implementation of new national policy on education in Orumba South Local Government Area of Anambra  State. In terms of the content, the study investigated the financial problem, inadequate planning inadequate number of qualified staff and inadequate facilities as a problem encountered by principal in the implementation of new national policy on education. In this study, the researcher further stands to obtain information from the state ministry of Education in Anambra State.

Research Questions

        The following  research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • How does financial constraints hinder the effective implementation of nation policy on education.
  • How does inadequate planning hinder the effective implementation of national policy on education.
  • How does inadequate number of qualified staff constitute a problem to effective implementation of national policy on education.

How does inadequate facilities hinder the effective implementation of the New National Policy on Education.

PROJECT TOPIC- PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY PRINCIPALS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION IN ORUMBA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

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