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PROJECT TOPIC- MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING AND CONTROL. A STUDY OF THE REHABILITATION OF 33KM EZZAMGBO – EFFIUM / NGBO COURT – OKWOR MARKET ROAD IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA

PROJECT TOPIC- MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING AND CONTROL. A STUDY OF THE REHABILITATION OF 33KM EZZAMGBO – EFFIUM / NGBO COURT – OKWOR MARKET ROAD IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA

 

ABSTRACT 

This research work was carried out to determine the benefit of using project management techniques of planning and control in executing projects. Effort was made to show how these techniques could maintain a set profit margin as well as ensure early completion of work. A total of sixty-one structured questionnaires were used to statistically test the three hypotheses put forward for this study. The statistical calculations proved that the use of project management technique of planning and control ensure that the set profit margin will be realized and also that there will be early completion of project under these techniques. Project managers that employed the use of cost control technique and systematically compares planned work and actual work done stands the chance of reaping the benefit offered by these techniques of project management. Bar chart as a tool for effective planning will ensure optimal utilization of resources, thus saving cost that will boost the profit margin. Planning in concert with control ensure survival and profitability of the company under study.
ow ever, the researcher recommend that there is need to validate these benefits of project management techniques by applying these concepts to
other civil engineering projects in order to compare the result obtained. Profit data from other civil engineering firms could be used to  substantiate the impact of these techniques to the set profit margin as well as duration of contract.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Project involving major capital investment presents a tremendous challenge to those responsible for managing their implementation. The social and economic impact is often such that their evolution and outcome is very much in the public eye. The result of many projects is disappointing from the point of view of commitment to cost, completion date and performance. Estimate of economic benefit often fail to be fulfilled, even though, a high level of technology has been achieved. This can result in the cancellation of valuable and important projects having marginal economics.
Project management, like any other form of management is applied over a very wide range of the industrial and business environment and is therefore capable of wide interpretation. Project management is primarily a function in its own right, including organizational and procedural techniques for the efficient execution of projects. A project, unlike an established enterprise is a transient activity, and there is therefore little time or opportunity to establish methods of working and communication structures by traditional means. As a result, scientific methods, analytical  and behavioral methods and techniques play a larger part in the activities than other forms of management.
It is in view of the above peculiarity of projects that project manger must maintain three aspects of controls should the client be satisfied with the
work. The work must be completed and its objectives realized in terms of performance, cost and time. The completed project must work “how it was intended to, it must have cost what it was intended to, it must be taken into use when it was intended to”. These three-part entity of performance, cost and time is popularly referred to as “project management triangle”.
There has been a growing awareness of the need for sound management, which is now based on a multi-disciplinaiy activity. This applies whether
the enterprise is profit-oriented or where it provides a service. The manager of tomorrow is a major resource to any industry. Good management therefore is the key to successful civil engineering, which covers a wide range of complex activities and uses sophisticated plants and equipment.
It can be appreciated that there are no standard ways of managing projects. The management requirement depends very much on the type of
contract, scope, complexity of project and on the particular industry, personalities and time-scale involved.
The likelihood of disputes (and / or claim) developing in most construction projects today is great, if for no other reason but because the language of the usual construction contracts is seldom so clear as not to leave room for disagreement. More importantly, the owner’s ill-advised attitude of trying to save money by shifting more and more risk and responsibility onto the contractors (or suppliers) and a similar approach by contractors towards their subcontractors are clear invitations to disputes.
The management of conflicts is an inescapable part of a project manager’s responsibility. The ability to identify and effectively respond to conflict can significantly affect a manager’s overall success in managing a project. Hence, project managers adopts different style in responding to conflicts.
it can be argued that proper planning is the most fundamental consideration for successful project management. Planning involves choosing taslts that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the task must be performed and indicating when the tasks should be performed. Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers, through their plans, outline exactly what organizations must do to be successful. They are concerned with organizational success in the near future or short run as well as success in the more distant future or long run.

PROJECT TOPIC- MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING AND CONTROL. A STUDY OF THE REHABILITATION OF 33KM EZZAMGBO – EFFIUM / NGBO COURT – OKWOR MARKET ROAD IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA

 

Scheduling is the process of formulating detailed listing of activities that must be accomplished to attain an objective. This detailed listing is an
integral part of an organizational plan. Scheduling decisions allocates available capacity or resources (equipment, labour and space) to jobs, activities, taslts, or customers through time. Since scheduling is an allocation decision, it uses the resources made available by facilities decisions and aggregate planning. In practice, scheduling results in a time-phased plan (or schedule) of activities. The schedule indicates what to be done, when, by whom, and with what equipment. Thus, scheduling is the last and most constrained decision in the hierarchy of planning decisions.
Controlling is the management fimction for which managers gather information that measures recent performance within the organization, compare present performance to pre-established performance standard, and from this comparison, determines if the organization should be modified to meet pre-established standards. Controlling is an ongoing process. It ensures achievement of what was intended or planned. It requires clarity of establishing what is intended, effective communication and transmission of motives between those who established the intent and those who are to carry it out, and decision-making that will integrate its planning system and derive control baselines from detailed time-phased plans.
Planning is the first function to be performed, the function that precedes and is the foundation for the organizing, scheduling and controlling functions of managers. Only after managers have developed their plans, can they determine how they want to structure their organization, place their people, and establish organizational controls. Thus, there is need for project managers to apply various technique of planning, scheduling and control for effective and efficient management of projects, hence the topic of the study.

1.1 THE STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
THE MAIN PROBLEM:

The purpose of the study is to assess the use of project management techniques of planning (bar chart and linked chart) and control (cost coding system, comparison of actual cost with estimated cost) so as to determine their impact in maintaining profit margin and early completion of work.

THE SUB-PROBLEMS

1. Sub-problem 1.
The purpose of the study is to determine the use of control technique of project management (cost coding system, comparism of actual cost with estimated cost) so as to see whether it ensures that profit margin is maintained.
2. Sub-problem 2.
The investigation sets out to determine the use of control technique of project management (cost coding system, comparison of actual cost with estimated cost) so as to see whether it leads to early completion of project.
3. Sub-problem 3.
The purpose of the study is to determine the use of project management technique of planning (bar chart and linked chart) so as to see whether it leads to early completion of project.

1.2 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES

Hypothesis 1 :
Proper use of control technique of project management (cost coding system, comparison of actual cost with estimated cost) ensures that profit margin is maintained.
Hypothesis 2:
Good use of control technique of project management (cost coding system, comparison of actual cost with estimated cost) leads to early completion of project.
Hypothesis 3 :
Proper use of project management technique of planning (bar chart and linked chart) leads to early completion of project.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

With the growth of technology and more scientific approach to management, it is clear that it will not be possible to make adequate decision other than by a combination of sound technique and management competence. In other to be successfid, the enterprise can not be static and there must be a desire to select new ways and to make such adjustments when necessary, and to be prepared for the future by a continuing process of reappraisal. The call is for adequate direction and control, forecasting, planning, coordinating, integrating and appraising. Every project manager knows that it is a lot tougher than it loolts. Juggling cost, time and resources factors manually is something that too many project managers face daily. Only they know precisely how inefficient, wasteful and difficult it is.
In consideration of the above background, the following objectives will be addressed by this study.
1. Examine to what extent the use of planning, scheduling and control technique are employed in managing road projects.
2. Evaluates the use of critical path method quantitatively in taking strategic decisions.
3. Determine how the critical path method could be adopted to provide better control of resources in road projects, minimize the cost of execution and or to complete the job in the minimum time.
4. Weigh the degree of interrelationship and effects of planning, scheduling and controlling variables in project execution.

5. Examine the use of resources in terms of cost (estimating) and time (planning) in obtaining cash flow analysis.

1.4 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

PROJECT TOPIC- MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES OF PLANNING AND CONTROL. A STUDY OF THE REHABILITATION OF 33KM EZZAMGBO – EFFIUM / NGBO COURT – OKWOR MARKET ROAD IN EBONYI STATE OF NIGERIA

 

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