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PROJECT TOPIC- ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS OF PRINCIPALS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE USING OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AS A CASE STUDY

PROJECT TOPIC- ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS OF PRINCIPALS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE USING OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AS A CASE STUDY

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background to the Study

Effective and efficient administration is very vital to secondary education in order to achieve the educational objectives. Education has continued to be a social process used for building the capacity of individuals and maintenance of the society for decade as well as a tool for acquisition of skills, knowledge and habits that could be utilized for survival in the challenging world (Adepoju and Fabiyi, 2007). According to Adesina (2011), education is one of the most important forces that can be used in empowering individuals economically, intellectually, socially and culturally. The author further noted that education has the capacity to ensure attitudinal change and to build character as well as reshaping human potential for desired development.Secondary education is very important in educational system.

Apart from serving as a link between primary education and tertiary education, “it tends to provide opportunities for a child to attain additional height through knowledge, skills and traits that is beyond the primary level. The major element that necessitates the acquisition of secondary education in Nigeria is that education that is provided at the primary level is insufficient for a child to acquire the level of  literacy needed, communicative and numeracy skills expected from him/her at the end of the training” (Yusuf 2009; Osho, 2000; Chinclo, 2011 and Ige, 2011).

Secondary education having been developed alongside western education, was introduced by Christian missionaries in 1842 (Adesina, 2007). “From the beginning, only primary education received the needed recognition from the Christian missionaries as it was used as avenue to woo the children into Christianity. Government’s attention to secondary education took effect some decades after the development of primary education, particularly when the need for outputs of primary schools to further their education in secondary schools became vital. Secondary school is provided for children after their primary education.

That is, before tertiary education. It is geared towards developing a child better than the primary level, because it is obvious that primary education is not adequate for children to acquire literacy, numeracy and communication skills” (Yusuf, 2009 and Ige, 2011). Such education as provided at secondary school level could be owned and managed by state or federal government, individual or community. It cannot be overstressed that secondary education is distinctive in the educational development of individuals.

Being the link that holds primary education and tertiary education, secondary education equips individuals with skills, values, trainings and knowledge acquires by the child at this point complements those that were acquired at the primary education level and when they are effectively combined, such an individual will be seen as been ready for tertiary education.Fafunwa (2005) also defined secondary education as that type of education that is geared equipping an individual with skills after primary education and before the tertiary level. The essential principle here is that secondary education is expected to prepare individuals quality educational services for inclusive societal development.

However, it is obvious this expected goal of secondary schools are relegated as most students after their secondary education lack such expected skills. This is why every concerned citizen in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi state is worried about the poor performances in student’s academics. “Products of today’s secondary school system can neither usefully live in the society no more into higher instruction without their parent’s aid or forgery. According to him, he reported that they cannot think for themselves or respect the views and feeling of others they have no iota of dignity of labour expect for thing that will give them quick money” (Omoregie, 2005:7).

Nevertheless, the administration of secondary school in ohaukwu L.G.A of Ebonyi state and changing society Nigeria needs experienced hands to effectively combine the principle administration to reality. These principles includes: planning, staffing, coordinating advertising and controlling as well as mastering. In this regard, it is believable that the programmes and activities of any organizations are usually determined by members of the organization. The above statement is a fact as Equipment, Plants, computers, offices, automated facilities and all other resources available in an organization may be unproductive except from human efforts.

Perntomode (2001) remarked as follows:“Human resources management in education is not the effective utilization of people parse at work but id also the harnessing of the totality of the people’s skills, energies talents, capacities, social characteristics  and belief to achieve educational objectives and simultaneously making the people to be part and parcel of the organization in attaining their goals and objectives.”Obi (2004) noted that educational administration is a all-inclusive effort, focusing on educational practices, and it focuses on the utilization of different resources in the development of human potentials. The human elements that can be employed in bringing out the potential of individuals include students, parents, teachers and other staff in an organization while material resources include: buildings and land, finance, instructional material and other equipment.

PROJECT TOPIC- ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS OF PRINCIPALS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE USING OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AS A CASE STUDY

Also, there are laws, ideas, regulations and so on that haves direct influence on the educational management. The administrator coordinates all those human elements and potentials especially that of principal’s staff and students in the educational set up. For rapid social-cultural changes in our secondary schools, the principal is at the apex of organogram of the school management and as such is charged with the responsibility of handling uncertainties, planning, administration and control of routine supervision.

Ajaji and Oguntoye (2003) opined that principal as the chief executives are bestowed with the duty of  modifying characters and attitudes of both academic and non-academic staff thereby motivating them to put in more effort that can contribute to the achievement of the specified educational goal through ensuring the effectiveness of  teaching and learning. “A school principal must not only be trained in the act of administration but must be well acquainted with the principles that guide and control administrative process” (Ayayi and Oni in Babayemi, 2006:14).

The success of secondary school education rests on a good administration involving the local communities, well qualified and contented staff, adequate funds for equipment and facilities together with the interested parents supplying children, material needs and bringing home training to supplement the effort at school. Likewise for principals of schools to succeed in the administration of secondary schools, they need the co-operation and support of the parents, teachers, secondary school board and the ministry of education. Odia and Omofonnawan (2007) observed that education in Nigeria is besieged with colossal problems such as poor funding poor educational infrastructure; including inadequate classrooms, unqualified teachers and poor learning environment. In the face of an abysmal lack of these vital resources principal’s effort to administer schools diligently will be throated.

Likely outcomes of the kind of situation include recalcitrant students’ non literate population and a subdued reaching workforce to name a few.  Many secondary schools in Ebonyi state are not exempted from this sour state of affairs. Many are challenged by a constant lack of educational amenities as well as poor performances of students. The utility of this couched with the above statement especially against the determination that while few students have been conducted on secondary schools management in Nigeria, none has taken an interest on the administrative constraints faced by school principals especially in Ohaukwu local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

. 1.2. Statement of the Problem

In recent time abysmal student’s academic performance in Ohaukwu L.G.A has been a major concern to parents, teachers. As principals of schools are faced with numerous administrative constraints which militate against the effective running of the schools. It is unspeakable to note that most secondary school students are performing below expectation. The researchers interaction with principals, parents and teachers revealed that the conditions under which many students learn in many government secondary schools is not conducive and deplorable and capable of rendering the teacher ineffective and posing a hindrance to positive educational outcomes.

Most teachers do not have in-depth knowledge of the subject allotted to them; most assigned duties to students are not well carried out and also there tend to be lack of communication among students; irregular payment of staff as well as inadequate instructional materials; lack of building and equipment for practical classes and the relationship between the school and the host community. Where the principal fails to arrest these situations, the smooth running of the secondary school is compromised.

How far the above constraints exist and their implications on the administration of secondary Schools are the focus of this study.

1.3. Purpose of the Study

The main concern of the study is to find out the administrative constraints of principals of senior secondary schools in Ebonyi State using Ohaukwu Local Government area as a case study. Specifically, the objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To determine how teacher related factors constitute an administrative constraint to principles in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

2. To ascertain the extent student elated factors constitute an administrative constraint to principles in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State

3. To find out whether financial related factors constitute an administrative constraints to principles in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

4. To determine how school-plant related factors cause administrative constraint to principles in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

5. To ascertain how factors related to community- school relationship constitute an administrative constraint to principles in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

PROJECT TOPIC- ADMINISTRATIVE CONSTRAINTS OF PRINCIPALS OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE USING OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA AS A CASE STUDY

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