This research titled, “Analysis of International responses to Domestic Security Challenges in Nigeria with a particular references to Boko-Haram Insurgency” this research is aimed at ascertaining the factors that encouraged the growth and spread of Boko Haram sect, to examine the responses of international community on the threat of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria, to examine the efforts of Nigeria government in addressing the issues associated with Boko Haram insurgency as regard to internal security and to identify the security implications of Boko-Haram sect to the Nigeria socio-economic development. The work was built on collective security theory. The researcher adopted secondary source of data collection and the method of data analysis was contend analysis, data were collected and analyzed. The findings reveals that the Nigeria government have not do much in curtaining insurgency in the country. Also the study indicates that government officials help in financing Boko Haram in the country. Based on the findings it was recommended that the government should not adopt the Niger Delta solution, that is, amnesty to Boko Haram because up till now, nobody can evidently say that these are the Boko Haram members, government should provide funds, instead for amnesty but to upgrade and switch in its intelligence gathering gadgets, government should do whatever it takes to find out how this movement is funded.
1.1 Background of Study
The quest for security is no doubt, a known primary concern of every political community from time immemorial. Indeed, “the search for security might have been one of the several drives for people to aggregate into bands, tribes, kingdoms and nation-states to join international organizations” (PadelFord 1976). During the early stages of man’s existence, the quest for security was given expression in form of fruit gathering and periodic hunting expedition for the purposes of meeting the basic socio-economic requirements of the people.
Also, people’s preference for a rocky and mountainous topography as shelter was largely informed by physical security consideration. Similarly, the practice of building fortifying walls around residential structures was largely motivated by the security need of the people (Gambo, 2008). However, modern society has witnessed far reaching transformation which has created complicated security problem for it.
Ethno-religious violence has bedevilled Nigeria as a sovereign and independent country since its return to democracy in 1999. The Boko Haram insurgency has continued to pose a serious threat to the country’s security system and corporate political entity (Zenn, 2014). Since the violence re emergence of the Boko Haram in 2010 the attacks and suicide bombing carried out by the group was increasing beyond the national boundary.
Furthermore, in pursuit of their violence objective, the sect engages in bombing police station, schools and Mosques. The sect also engages in kidnapping of foreigners, and the recent tactics of kidnapping women. The group kidnapped more than 250 school girls in Chibok town of Borno state. According to Anyadike (2014), the changing dynamic of the operations and tactics of the group confused many scholars and analysts.
Its initial campaign of violence targeting security personnel and their formations have now expanded to include civilians, nongovernmental targets and the entire Nigeria populace. The major violence started in 2009 between the Boko Haram and Nigerian security forces. This violence has claimed the lives of more than 1000 people with over 700 killed in Borno State capital Maiduguri (Umar, 2012).
This violence has exposed the weakness of Nigerian security system by its inability to curb the crisis on time. Subsequently, the group carried out another attack, when it orchestrated a large prison break in Bauchi in 2010 which freed more than 700 inmates including the sect members. This prison break shows how capable the group is in undermining the security of the country and exposes its weakness to the international community (VOA, 2012).
The sect claimed responsibility for police headquarters attacks that was believed to be the first suicide bombing in Nigeria in 2011. The attack is said to target the former Inspector General of Police. This attack shows how powerful the group is with its ability and strategy to attack such an important place (Blanchard, 2014). In the same year, the group carried out another suicide attack on United Nations Headquarters in Abuja in which twenty people were killed and more than sixty were injured (Nossiter, 2011).
The attack drew the attention of the international community about the threats of the sect that is now beyond the national issue. “The Boko Haram attacks since 2011 have featured Improvised Explosive Devices (TEDS), car bombs, and periodical suicide bombing. The members of the group cause a lot of damages and unpleasant moments to the people by continuing burning and destroying the communities using arms and arsons (Plouch, 2014).
This made the United States security department to designate Boko Haram and Ansaru as foreign terrorist organizations (FTO) in November, 2013. Subsequently, the United Nations Committee on al Qaeda sanction blacklisted the group on 22 May 2014. The United listing entry describes Boko Haram as an affiliate of Al Qaeda and organization of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) (Nicholas, 2014).
PROJECT TOPIC- ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL RESPONSES TO DOMESTICS SECURITY CHALLENGES IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF BOKO-HARAM INSURGENCY
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The threats posed by the group recently are undermining the existence of Nigeria as one political territory. The group captured more than local governments in the affected states of Borno Yobe, and Adamawa. And about 500 Nigerian soldiers and refugees flee Boko Haram to Cameroun (Sahara Reporters, 2014). Moreover, the sect’s leader Shekau declares areas under the sect’s control as new caliphate that would be governed according to strict Islamic codes (Sahara Reporters, 2014).
All these have exposed the weaknesses of Nigerian government to curb the problem of the group, despite the country being the giant of Africa. According to Onuoha (2014), also Boko Haram has become a threat to regional security and its violent activities have impacted regional security. These threats by the sect can be assessed from at least four dimensions. Namely, the group expansion in the form of recruitment, training equipment and funding its target, the increase problems of border attacks, transnational implications of these attacks, as well as diminishing the potential of Nigeria as a defacto leader of West Africa. It is against this backdrop that this study seeks to examine the international Reponses to domestic security challenges in Nigeria with particular references to Boko Haram insurgency.
The following research question were formulated to guide this study:
- What are the factors that encouraged the growth and spread of Boko Haram sect in Nigeria?
- What are responses of international community on the threat of Boko Haram insurgency?
- What are the effort of Nigeria government in addressing the issues associated with insurgency as regard to internal security?
- What are the security implications of Boko-Haram insurgency in Nigeria and the international system?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objectives of this research is to analyse the international response to domestic security challenges in Nigeria: specifically, this study sought to:
- Ascertain the factors that encouraged the growth and spread of Boko Haram sect.
- To examine the responses of international community on the threat of Boko Haram insurgency on Nigeria.
- To examine the efforts of Nigeria government in addressing the issues associated with Boko Haram insurgency as regard to internal security.
- To identify the security implications of Boko-Haram sect to the Nigeria socio-economic development.
1.4 Significance of the Study
There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.
1.5 Theoretical Framework
The researcher of this study adopted collective security theory propounded by Organiski (1960) collective security used objectively or descriptively, the term indicates the relative distribution of power among states into equal or unequal shares. Traditionally, it refers to a state of affairs in which no one state predominates over others. Prescriptively, it refers to a policy of promoting a power equilibrium on the assumption that unbalanced power is dangerous.
Prudent states that are at a disadvantage in the balance of power will (or at least should) form an alliance against a potentially hegemonic state or take other measures to enhance their ability to restrain a possible aggressor. The basic principle behind this theory can be summed up in the phrase ‘one for all and all for one’. As a means of maintaining peace between states, the legal and diplomatic organisation of collective security can be located midway between the two extremes of an unregulated balance of power and a world government.
Although the idea of a single world government is sometimes entertained as a solution to the problem of war, it is extremely unlikely to be brought about by conscious design. The idea of collective security is attractive because it seeks to bring about some of the alleged benefits of a world government without altering the essential features of an anarchical states system. The purpose of a collective security system is to maintain peace among the members of the system, not between the system and outsiders.
Collective security allows states to renounce the unilateral use of force because they are assured of assistance if a state illegally uses force against them. Simultaneously, it requires that all states participate in enforcing sanctions against an aggressor. There are three reasons why many commentators (and sometimes states) have found the idea of collective security attractive. First, it promises security to all states, not just some of the most powerful.
Organski (1960) lists five basic assumptions underlying the theory of collective security; In an armed conflict, member nation-states will be able to agree on which nation the aggressor is, All member nation-states are equally committed to contain and constrain the aggression, irrespective of its source or origin, All member nation-states have identical freedom of action and ability to join in proceedings against the aggressor, The cumulative power of the cooperating members of the alliance for collective security will be adequate and sufficient to overpower the might of the aggressor, In the light of the threat posed by the collective might of the nations of a collective security coalition, the aggressor nation will modify its policies, or if unwilling to do so, will be defeated, To claim that a particular foreign policy is in the national interest imparts a degree of authority and legitimacy to that policy.
Without an accepted notion of the national interest, those who are called upon to evaluate their leaders’ performance have no helpful criteria by which to do so.
In present scenario human security and environmental security have become major components of national security in Nigeria. Human security is affected by poverty, health issues, communal tensions etc. and in turn makes national security vulnerable as it radicalizes civil society and makes it prone to terrorism, crime and other threats.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study
The scope of this research study is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation of international response to domestic security challenges in Nigeria with particular references to Boko- Haram crisis in Nigeria from the year 2002 till date. This is because of its spontaneous nature.
In view of the limitations of this study, various factors contributed in affecting the researchers comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors include, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature, financial constraints, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions and other tasking campus engagements and the fact that the crisis was still occurring at the period of research.
Despite the above mentioned short comings and hindrances, the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.