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PROJECT TOPIC- ANTIBIOGRAM OF KLEBSIELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM WILD EDIBLE LAND SNAIL (ACHATINA ACHATINA) SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

PROJECT TOPIC- ANTIBIOGRAM OF KLEBSIELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM WILD EDIBLE LAND SNAIL (ACHATINA ACHATINA) SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT

An antibiogram of Gram negative Klebsiella species investigation was conducted on a total of 13 edible wild giant land snail (Achatina achatina) samples bought from Odukpani market junction, Calabar metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria for the presence of Klebsiella species. The snails were processed using standard microbiological methods, characterized using biochemical tests and were further subjected to antibiotics susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. Klebsiella were found to be present in all the 13 samples. The bacteria isolated showed high colony count ranging from 11×105 cfu/ml to 525×105 cfu/ml with average colony count of 253.2×105cfu/ml. Bacterial isolates tested negative to Gram staining, coagulase test, catalase test, but demonstrated positive to indole and oxidase tests. A total of 10 different antibiotics were used and high susceptibility were recorded for imipenem (76.9 %), genttamicin (100 %) meropenem (86.62) respectively while 100 % resistance were recorded against ciprofloxacin, oxacillin, amoxicillin clavuranic acid, ampicillin, sulfonamide trimethroprim, penicillin and trimethroprim respectively. The multiple antibiotics resistance index (MARI) values that were obtained ranges from 0.7 to 1. Because of the significance of these Klebsiella species isolates, in that they contribute to gastro-intestinal and other infections there is need for proper processing of snails before eating.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The genus Klebsiella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin and intestines.In the recent years, Klebsiella species has become an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae is most frequently recovered from clinical specimens and can cause a classic form of primary pneumonia. Klebsiella can also cause a variety of extrapulmonary infections, including enteritis and meningitis in infants, urinary tract infections in children and adults and septicaemia. In the United States, Klebsiella accounts for 3-7% of all nosocomial bacterial infections, placing them among the eight most important infectious pathogens in hospitals Ko et al. (2002).

The degree of Klebsiella infections is associated with hospitalization. As an opportunistic pathogen, Klebsiella species primarily attack immunoconpromised individuals who are hospitalized and suffer from severe underlying diseases such as diabetes mellitus or chronic pulmonary obstruction, chronic cardiac, renal and neoplastics diseases. The majority of human Klebsiella infectios is caused by Klebsiella pneumonia followed by Klebsiella oxytoca (Platt et al., 1976).

Klebsiella species are ubiquitous in nature. In addition to being the normal flora of the intestine are also found in respiratory tracts of human and animals. These bacteria have been recovered in aquatic environment, plants products and fresh vegetables (Brown and Seidler, 1973). Cockroaches play a role of vectors in hospital environment. The presence of Klebsiella species in respiratory tracts of animals is also a source of contacting the Klebsiella infection by human such as consumption of  this animals for example consumption of improperly cooked edible snail(Achatina achatina) (Cotton et al., 2000).

Klebsiellae have a tendency to harbor antibiotic resistant plasmids; thus, infections with multiple antibiotic-resistant strains can be anticipated. Virtually all clinical strains are resistant to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and ticarcillin (Livermore, 1995). Of particular concern is the recent appearance of Klebsiella strains that possess plasmids that mediate resistance to ESBL drugs. This form of resistance is due to the production of unique beta-lactamase enzymes, referred to as ESBL’s. These enzymes have been seen mostly in strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae and E.coli, and cause them to be resistant to most beta-lactam drugs, including the third generation cephalosporins (Livermore, 1995). K. oxytoca is also resistant to multiple antibiotics due to chromosomal beta-lactamase over-expression that leads to a characteristics antibiogram with high resistant to cefuoxime, cefotaxime, ceftriazone and aztreonam, but susceptible to ceftazidime except in extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)  producers (Kliebe et al., 1985; Buré et al., 1988; Jarlier et al., 1988; Gutmann et al., 1989; Podbielski et al., 1991; Paterson et al., 2003).

Achatina achatina known as the giant tiger land snail is a large air breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Achatinidae. It is considered a potentially serious pest due to its mode of feeding. It is as invasive species that could adversely affect agriculture, natural ecosystem, human health or commerce (Ohlweiler et al., 2010).. This species of snail is predominant in West Africa where it is consumed as food and also used as pet (Ajayi et al., 2009)..

Therefore it is essential to understand the antibiogram pattern of  Klebsiella species found in this animal( edible wild Achatina achatina) in different geographical location or settings especially in west Africa where its interaction with human is very common and to implement the measure to control rapid spread of drug resistance through this medium, hence this study is undertaken to isolate, characterize and determine the Antibiogram of Klebsiella species isolated from wild edible snail (Achatina achatina) sold in Calabar Metropolis.

 

1.1  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

Aims

The aim of this study was to isolate and determine the antibiogram pattern of Klebsiella species, isolated from  edible wild snail (Achatina achatina) sold in Calabar Metropolis.

 

Objectives

  1. To enumerate the bacteria present in the snail samples
  2. To isolate and characterize Klebsiella species from the snail samples.
  • To determine the susceptibility pattern of the Klebsiella species isolates implicated with edible wild snail ( Achatina achatina) sold in Calabar Metropolis.
  1. To determine the multi-Drug antibiotic resistance index (MARI) of the isolates with relation to various classes of antibiotics used.

PROJECT TOPIC- ANTIBIOGRAM OF KLEBSIELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM WILD EDIBLE LAND SNAIL (ACHATINA ACHATINA) SOLD IN CALABAR METROPOLIS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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