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PROJECT TOPIC- AN ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA USING RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST (RDT) AND ANEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED 0-11MONTHS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- AN ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA USING  RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST (RDT) AND ANEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED  0-11MONTHS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of malaria using rapid diagnostic test and anemia among children aged 0-11months in Ikwo Local Government Area Ebonyi State. It was a hospital based research analysis carried out in Rural Improvement Mission Hospital (RIM), Ndiagu Echara, Ikwo Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Children between ages of 0-11months attending immunization were recruited and their bloods collected for rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and packed cell volume (PCV) analysis. Out of 113 children screened, a total of 29 children (26%) tested positive to malaria. About 30% out of 50 male children screened were infected with malaria parasite while 22% infections were discovered in 63 female screened. The findings from this study also clearly unfold the highest prevalence of malaria among children of 0-3months old. That is 25% of 85 children within the age range 0-3months tested positive to malaria. This might be attributed to vertical transmission of malaria infection from the mother to the baby. Based on 112 children available for PCV test, the result indicated 50male and 62 female with 3 persons (27.3%) and 8 (72.7%) falls between ≤ 20, 25 (45.5%) and 30 (54.5%) are between 21 – 30, 21 (51.2%) and 20(48.8%) are between 31 – 40 and 1 (20%) and 4 (80%) are between ≥ 41 were screened respectively . The relationship between malaria and anemia showed low number of children that were both infected with malaria and anemia in all the age range. These findings and the fact that a high proportion of non-malaria infected children were anemic suggest the presence of other risk factors for anemia in pediatrics, although the contribution of malaria is noted. The use of insecticides treated nets and improve intake of iron could avert the dangers caused by malaria and anemia infection in the area.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0 Background of the Study

Malaria sometimes known as “king of Diseases” (Noppadon et al., 2009) is one of the most common disease in the tropics (Samuel et al., 1989). It is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus plasmodium. The most serious and sometimes fatal type of malaria is caused by plasmodium falciparum. The other human malaria species, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae and sometimes P. knowlesi can cause acute, severe illness but mortality rate are low.

Malaria is a major global health problem with over 40% of the world population exposed to varying degrees of malaria risk in some 100 countries (Noppadon et al., 2009). It is estimated that over 500million people suffer from malaria infections annually resulting in about 1-2 million deaths of which 90% are children in sub-sharan Africa (http://www.mmv.org). The number of malaria cases worldwide seem to be increasing, due to increasing transmission risk in areas where malaria control has declined, the increasing prevalence of drug resistant strains of parasites and in relatively few cases massive increases in international travel and migration (Pasvol, 2005).

WHO (2006) reported that the need for effective and practical diagnostics for global malaria is increasing since effective diagnosis reduce both complication and mortality for malaria. Malaria grows in blood cells, multiply and eventually causing anemia due to haemolysis, immune response (e.g. erythro-phaghocytosis) as well as dyserythropoiesis (Means, 1994). Anemia (Hb level < 11g/g) has remained one of the most serious public health problems in malaria – endemic countries of Africa, Nigeria inclusive, and severe anemia (Hb level <5 g/dl) is associated with increased risk of death (Brabin et al., 2001).

One child dies of malaria or its complication like severe anemia and/or cerebral malaria every 20seconds in Africa and there is one malarial death every 12 seconds somewhere in the world (WHO, 2003). Malarial anemia in the adults at later age is found to be common in chronic infections, due to depressed immunity, poor nutritional intake and sub – clinical infection (especially in the sub – saharan Africa, which is a malaria – endemic and poverty stricken area)(Imam and Indabawa,2007).        

The use of clinical diagnoses based on patient’s signs and symptoms or physicians findings may not be easy to be differentiated from other tropical infections. Hence acceptable and confirmatory diagnoses using laboratory technologies are urgently needed.

PROJECT TOPIC- AN ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA USING  RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST (RDT) AND ANEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED  0-11MONTHS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

  • Statement of Problem

Although quite extensive work has been done on malaria parasite ranging from prevention and control, clinical and laboratory diagnosis, treatment, and pathology and pathogenesis, epidemiology genetic sequencing (Wang et al., 2006, Jombo et al., 2011) the disease still continues to bring so much pain and sorrow to several families on the African continent and beyond (Uneke, 2007, Jombo et al., 2011).

According to Jombo et al (2011), Sarkar et al (2009) and Dunyo et al (2006), pregnant women, children and HIV infected individuals constitute the most vulnerable groups of malaria and associated diseases such as anemia especially sub-sharan Africa of which Ikwo Local Government Area is included. Matangila et al (2014) noted that malaria in pregnancy is characterized by a secondary anemia and the presence of parasites in the placenta known as placenta malaria, leading to low birth weight, source of perinatal morbidity and mortality.

Maternal anemia consequently increases the incidence of maternal death during pregnancy or post-partum, and is associated with increased foetal and infant mortality, prematurity and low birth weight across many populations (Leopardi et al., 1996). Danger of high prevalence of malaria among pediatric patients is increased as a result of vertical transmission of malaria infection to the foetus. This can occur particularly when malaria parasites cross the placenta, either during pregnancy or at the time of birth (Brabin, 2007).

1.2      Justification of this Study

In the laboratory, malaria is diagnosed using different techniques, e.g. Conventional microscopic diagnosis by staining thin and thick peripheral blood smears (Ngasala et al., 2008), other concentration techniques e.g. Quantitative buffy coat (QBC) method (Bhandari et al., 2008), rapid diagnostic tests e.g., OptiMAL (Tagbor and Zerpa, 2008), ICT (Ratsimbasoa et al., 2008), para-HIT-F (Morrow et al, 2008), parascreen (Endeshaw et al, 2008), SD Bioline (Lee et al., 2008), paracheck (Harvey et al., 2008), and molecular diagnostic methods, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Holland et al., 2005, Votk et al., 2007).

In Nigeria, the main strategy for reducing malaria morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and children as adopted by Federal Ministry of Health is malaria prophylaxis, intermittent preventive treatment, use of insecticide treated nets, presumptive treatment of all fevers with anti-malarial drugs. This is in line with World Health Organization recommendation for endemic countries where the availability and use of laboratory facilities are in short supply and also in line with the ongoing ‘Roll Back Malaria’ initiative (Jombo et al., 2011). Since Africa’s malaria decade has now passed, the need to assess its impact on malaria control among her most vulnerable groups becomes immensely imperative (Jombo et al., 2011) hence this study.

  • Objectives of this Study

The objectives of this study are therefore,

  • To determine the prevalence of malaria among children of about 0-11 months old using rapid diagnostic tests.

To determine the prevalence of anemia among children of about 0-11 months old using haematocrit reader.

PROJECT TOPIC- AN ASSESSMENT OF PREVALENCE OF MALARIA USING  RAPID DIAGNOSTIC TEST (RDT) AND ANEMIA AMONG CHILDREN AGED  0-11MONTHS IN IKWO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA EBONYI STATE

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