PROJECT TOPIC- ATTITUDES OF FEMALE STUDENTS TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It’s obvious that the issue of population has become a global issue of discuss. This occur as the population of a given area continues to grow high; this in line with the Malthus assumption that “human population increases geometrically, while that of food supply increases arithmetically; being alarmed of this fact he warned that population if unchecked would result to famine; thus he averred that population should not grow beyond nutrition capable of supporting it.
However, being informed about the pending disaster that would accompany over- population, it therefore becomes imperative to embrace family planning method in order to help curb the population rate now experienced world over especially in the third world countries. This informs us on how to reduce fertility rate either by natural or artificial application of the method. Some countries such as china, Germany and other European countries have adopted the method of family planning as a population reduction policy by fiat and that is why these countries can be said to have an equal rate of their food supply and population rate through the auspices of United Nations Population fund and world Health Organization (WHO).
In china, for instance, the introduction of one- child policy forced couples to have not more than one child, beginning in 1979, when the policy was instated to control the rapid population that was occurring in the nation at that time; with the rapid change in population, china was facing many impacts of the rapid population growth including poverty and homelessness. Just as a developing nation, the Chinese government was concerned that a continuation of the rapid population growth that had been occurring would hinder their development as a nation.
Being informed of the above obstacles they sought to welcome the idea of family planning method. Also, the introduction of “two is enough campaign by the family planning association of Hong Kong, helped to tackle the issue of population growth. In the third world countries, Africa and Nigeria in particular, the issue of family planning has been taking for granted and that is why there still looms rapid population growth in the third world nations especially in Nigeria.
Traditionally, in Africa as a whole the issue of child bearing had been seen from a religions angle denoting that children are favours from God, source of social security and guidance to their aged parents, source of economic activities and so on. This however has hindered the introduction of family planning and given the type of family structures experienced within the family unit, (that is extended family), which has catalyzed the growth of African population, not until the early 20th centuries, though to some extend had experienced a sensitization and an awareness campaign which some has adopted while others are yet to do so.
Though, some religion such as catholic had for over the years rejected the adoption of the formal and artificial application of the family planning methods arguing that God created man to enjoy sex and such is only for reproduction purposes; and not for personal sexual gratification, thus God made fornication and adultery sin before his presence. (Paul Whit Comb; 1961). Thus, against the above back drop the researcher seeks to inquire into the attitudes of our female students toward the family planning method in order to help predict the necessary observance or rejection of the method, due to its observance would lead to a happy life, while the reverse will be a total jeopardy to human kind.
PROJECT TOPIC- ATTITUDES OF FEMALE STUDENTS TOWARDS FAMILY PLANNING
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Firstly, fertility has in several occasions been made the scapegoat of the social pathologies and malaises that crack our society, Extensiveness of procreation primarily caused by early age at marriage, bestows the women with low occupation status and in some cases poverty. Of consideration is this remarkable fact, what type of education, clothing and social needs a subsistence parents provide to their say 10-12 children especially when the state and federal government play little or negligible role in welfare and scholarship schemes.
The economic base of African cities is grossly inadequate to provide jobs, decent housing, clean water, traffic controls constant electricity and a clean environment for the cities teeming population. High maternal mortality, however, could be drastically reduced, if adequate spacing of births is made. Anyanwu, C.F. (2002) noted that this would help the mother to recover from strains incurred in the previous pregnancy, child birth and breast feeding.
However, economic and social development would be delayed in the absence of family planning: Demonstrating this remarkable insight, Yakubu Gowon said, that the population growth rate is outstripping the rate of food production and creating concern with respect to fixed assets such as land and so must be slowed down for Nigeria to achieve socio-economic development.
In the other hand, population density (congestion on land), has increased nowadays especially in Africa (Nigeria inclusive) where there tradition and belief system encourage such; by this it therefore implies that this work intends to investigate the nature, trends and attitudes of Nigerian youths toward family planning methods, also envisaged here negative and positive impacts that are associated to acceptance and acceptance of family planning methods respectively.
Though, a lot of work has been done on the subject matter but some of which has failed to provide a typical analytical trends in which a developing nation like Nigeria could adopt to ensure possible decline in the population growth rate. The above mentioned lapses had called to the researcher’s interest in order to help address those areas.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
The family size of every household reflects the enduring values and expectations of that household, that serve it right in the general context of social milieu. However, in some respects, they are out- fashioned and in line with this, it becomes absolutely imperative to account for the following questions.
- What is the nature of family planning in Nigeria today?
- What are the impacts of family planning adoption towards Nigeria’s socio- economic development?
iii. What are the methods or techniques of family planning necessary for a developing Nation like Nigeria?
- What is the attitude of Nigerian youth towards family planning?
- What is the importance of family planning?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Generally, the evolutionary wave perceives family size as a parametric measure of social currency. For instance, it had been widely held that high fertility is a resort of the folk societies, whereby the high fertility discounted the high mortality. Modern societies on the other hand, enjoy low mortality and are therefore suppose to have low fertility which they could conveniently cater for.
Through, laissez- fairism accommodates one living according to his will, but to what extent is this tenable when it becomes a factor of consideration in international politics and when it jeopardizes the livelihood and power of fellow citizens. In as much as family planning is an intrusion to the privacy of families it is morally right to do so when it involves a “save of soul”.
However, the primary objectives of this study are:
- To enquire the nature of family planning in Nigeria.
- To determine the impacts of family planning adoption towards socio-economic development of Nigeria.
iii. We sought to outline the available techniques of family planning necessary for a developing nation like Nigeria.
- We seek to determine the attitude of Nigerian youths toward family planning.
- We seek to highlight the importance of family planning to a developing nation like Nigeria.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The foregoing objectives are reasoned to have the potentialities to reveal the underlying factors, its nature that had inhibited and drugged the adoption of family planning methods; and thus move a head to validate or invalidate documents on the efficiency of family planning.
However, this study is specifically designed to be a compendium of information about family planning; to introduce families to the fruits of family planning and moreso to encourage even the ambivalent and allay their fears against family planning, as nothing but a stratagem by the government against the perpetuation of their lineage.
Furthermore, it is expected to be a working basis for academicians, governments and private foundations who might be yearning for information on how to tackle the family burden question. It will also add to the array of stocks on scientific study of family planning in the Nigerian context.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Following the caption of this research work “Attitude of female students toward family planning, a study of final year female students EBSU” operationalization and definition of concepts is accordingly made as:-
- FAMILY PLANNING: It refers to planning on the part of women, men or couples to have a number of children they want, when they want them.
- FERTILITY: Is the actual reproduction performance; that is, the act of child bearing.
- FECURDITY: It refers to the physiological capability of an individual to bear a child.
- ECONOMIC BURDEN: It refers to anything that retards effective production and that which looses the strength or weight of economic activity.
- ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: It refers to anything (person or object) that contributes to boost production, income and the like.
- POPULATION POLICY: It refers to governments concern for excessively rapid population growth.
- POPULATION DENSITY: It refers to man-land ratio, it defines the relationship between man and available land.
- PROCREATE: To bear child.
- LIBIDIDUOUS URGE: Urrestricted urge for sexual satisfaction without pain.
- CONTRACEPTIVES: It refers to devices, mechanical or chemical, that restrains conception and gestation.
1.7 STUDY AREA
The study area of this investigation is Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki; with a focus on the final year female students.
Ebonyi State University was founded in 1996 in Abakaliki Nigeria. It is ranked third in the country among state- owned universities by the National University Commission, based on the quality of its academic staff.
It is housed in campuses formerly belonging to the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ASUTECH). These campuses provide a temporary accommodation, while a new campus is built on Enugu Road, Abakaliki by Dr. Sam Ominyi Egwu.
Presently, Ebonyi State University is located at the capital of Ebonyi State, with four campuses (CAS, CHS, ISHIEKE and the main site).
The institutions first vice- chancellor is professor Fidelis Ogah, followed by the incumbent vice- chancellor professor Idike.
However, the final year female students comprised all the female students in four hundred levels in different department, faculties and the campuses, save some professional discipline like law, medicine etc. The choice of this level four hundred is consequent upon their experiences on the subject matter.