PROJECT TOPIC- AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES MATERIALS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

ABSTRACT

In Ebonyi State, there is now an acute shortage of qualified trained teachers and a pathetic shortage of most of the facilities like classroom and laboratory accommodation, basic instructional facilities to mention but a few. This research tried to investigate in a systematic manner the availability and utilization of Resource materials in teaching social studies. The research was carried out in Afikpo south local Government Area of Ebonyi state in Nigeria. The researcher used survey research design and sample and sampling techniques for the study. Also, instrument for data collection was questionnaires. The data were analysed and some of the findings of the research were that; Availability and utilization of instructional materials helped in the improvement of teaching and learning and that instrumental materials creates enough impact in the teaching of social studies. Secondly, ineffective utilization of instructional materials affects the students performances in the learning of social studies. Finally, the researcher made some recommendations that the ministry of Education should be recruiting the right caliber of teachers with the requisite qualifications both in mind and academics. And the Federal Ministry of Education should provide adequate fund for the supply of instructional materials for social studies lessons.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The case of mass-failure in our secondary schools these days is generating a lot of concern to both parents, the government and the society at large. Also in the aspect of teaching and the general keeping of school record (ie Human and material resources) is very essential in our secondary schools for effective learning and teaching process. It is common these days to find on release of the senior secondary examination result for instance that only relatively

few students that sat for the examination perform well enough as to qualify for studying social studies in the tertiary institution of learning or for gainful employment in the labour market. Also those who are conversant with what happens in schools know how those human and material resource is, they often make the difference between success and failure among school heads.

This situation is serious and require urgent attention partially when we take into consideration the fact that education is an effective medium through which the culture, norms and aspirations of a society  is transmitted to the young member of the society so as to retain her identity and in perpetuity. According to ODO .C.O (2001:187) : in every school, whether at the primary, secondary or tertiary levels of Education, there are men and materials who

make it possible for schools to attain her desired goals. These men and materials constitute the resource base of the school as a whole. Hence, the proliferation of secondary schools in our various communities in recent times has created serious staffing problems. One of the problems has been inequitable posting of social studies teachers in favour of our Urban secondary schools.

It is also only fair that adequate manpower and infrastructure should be provided in all schools, their area of location notwithstanding. The ministry of Education and the state school management Board, acting as agents of the state government should therefore, ensure that resources (both human and materials) are made available and well utilized, and that equitable distribution of qualified teachers and equipment are also made available to all schools in

other to provide efficient teaching and proper learning of social studies. Kalu (1980) states that students of the Federal Government colleges perform better than those of community owned secondary schools. But now, it is believed that students of the private secondary schools perform better than those at both Government colleges and community owned secondary schools.

This is because government colleges and community secondary school are not humanly (staff) and materially (equipments) made available.  The little equipment found in these schools are not properly taken care of and managed as well. They refer government properties as no man’s property or business. This make teachers in these schools to be careless in utilizing the little available resource materials.

But in private secondary schools which are owned by private individual encourages efficiency by employing qualified teachers, equipping both their libraries and laboratories and also make sure that these resource materials are well utilized. The human resources are all the people who take part in the activities of the school such as teachers, instructional supervisors and all other support staff who are employed to ensure that the job of teaching and learning is enhanced and facilitated.

The material resources on the other hand, are the finance and other capital equipment, which must be needed to sustain the men that carry out various functions which help to keep the school and as well for teaching and learning to progress C.O. Odo (2001). It is also a clear fact that the resources are always limited and scare, thus necessitating some kind of prudent management.

Human and material resource management, therefore refers to the organization, coordination or management of the resources in a school or any other organization to help achieve the best possible results in learning and teaching of social studies and of secondary schools as a whole. The researcher will critically examine the availability and utilization of material resources and its effects on teaching and learning in secondary schools subject (social studies) as it regard to academic performance of the students.

It is also observed that there are certain underling factors that affect this unequal distribution of resources (Human and materials) among secondary schools. The class factor; a situation whereby the well placed citizens carved-out these “special” schools that are well equipped and staffed for their children in other to create a gap between them and those other citizens that belong to the low class of the pyramidal structure of the society.

According to Solain (1992:18), the unity secondary schools only write sons and daughters of the upper class members of the society for the purpose of knowing who to marry and who to give employment in future. It is said that the study of social studies is the study of the body of knowledge that relates to man as a member of the society and it creates an understanding of the environment-social and physical environment – its man made, natural, cultural and spiritual resources and the conservation of the resources for development.

Also, human wants are limited in relation to the resources that will satisfy them. The researcher is therefore conducting this research work as to finding the availability, utilization and effect the unequal distribution of human and material resources have in teaching and learning processes and consequently on the product of our Educational system with a view to finding a solution to the adverse impact on the society at large.

  • statement of problem

It is a common practice among teachers to adopt verbal symbolism and traditional methods as means of teaching, learning is always at its best when a greater number of the sense are stimulated. In view of the above, it is important to assess the availability and utilization of resources materials in teaching and learning of social studies in secondary school in Afikpo south local government area of Ebonyi State. The following questions are expected to be answered.

  • Do teachers utilize these instructional materials where they are available?
  • Do the local government have enough qualified teachers to handle the few available teaching aids?
  • Is these difference in academic performance between students exposed to resource materials and those not exposed to resource materials?
  • Purpose of the study

The primary objective of this study is to assess the availability and utilization of resource materials in teaching social studies in secondary schools of Afikpo south local government Area Ebonyi State. It is also meant to make appropriate recommendation that would enhance the availability, utilization, evaluation, storage and retrieval of instructional materials in teaching social studies in secondary schools. Finally, to examine and remedy the availability and utilizations of resource materials in teaching social studies and ascertain the various strategies and teaching aids involved in the teaching and learns of social studies.

PROJECT TOPIC- AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES MATERIALS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

  • Significance of the study

It has become necessary to conduct the research project so as to reveal to the government and society at large the effect unequal distribution of human and material resources have created on the product of our Educational system. In this, the researcher wants to use this research project as a source of useful information that will guide and direct the government and various Educational authorities in the balance of resources to schools no matter where there are being located or the nature of their establishment in Afikpo south local government area of Ebonyi state. The researcher under list the following group of people that will benefit from the research project;

  • Students which will benefit through this research by having a qualified teachers and equipment that will give them first hand on what they will e in future and to fit in the labour market.
  • The teachers will benefit through this research by having less work to do as a result of qualified staffs instead of unqualified ones that makes the job too tedious.
  • The society will also benefit by having a qualified and capable products that will fit into the labour market and make the society proud.

In addition, it is also hoped to stress on the need for even distribution of resources to secondary schools in Afikpo south L.G.A. At this time suggesting ways that problems arising from failure in schools could be reduced such as societal problems like dropout, draping (419), drug abuse, waste of claimable materials to mention but a few.

  • Research Questions
  • To what extent has the availability and utilization of instructional materials helped in the improvement of teaching and learning of social studies.
  • To what extent does instructional materials help the teachers in the teaching of social studies in secondary schools.
  • What impact has instructional materials created in the teaching of social studies.
  • To what extent does ineffective use of instructional material affect the students performances in the learning of social studies.
    • The scope of the study

As a result of the decentralization of function through zonal system of school administration, the educational zones were established in other to take Educational services near to the people and reduce congestion at the centre. The scope of the study is therefore limited to five (5) secondary schools in Afikpo south local government area in Ebonyi south Educational zone. It would have been ideal to study all the secondary schools in Ebonyi south Educational zone but owing to time and financial constraints, the schools of study had to be selected for a proper and a good research work.

PROJECT TOPIC- AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF RESOURCES MATERIALS IN TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN AFIKPO SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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