PROJECT TOPIC- BOKO HARAM CRISIS AND THE SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA
This study titled “ Boko-haram crisis and the socio-political development of nigeria” was aimed at ascertain the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, ascertain the socio-political and religious implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria, determine the ways in which the Nigeria citizens can serve as a helping hand in tackling the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria and to make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis. Frustration-aggression theory was used to guide the study while survey research design was adopted data were collected and analyzed though questionnaire. The finding reveals that the major causes of Boko-haram originated as a result of youth poverty and youth restiveness, also another major causes of Boko-haram insurgency is unemployment, unemployment of the Nigerian youth has caused the youth into kidnapping, robbery, prostitution etc. This research indicates that Boko haram insurgency has affected the socio-economic situation in Nigeria. also revealed that boko-haram is political and religiously motivated. Based on the findings it recommended that government should ensure adequate security in the Northeastern State to ensure the safety of lives and properties, government should create more employment opportunities in other to discourage youth restiveness and the government should not adopt the Niger Delta Solution, that is, Amnesty to boko-haram because up till now, nobody an evidently say that these are boko haram members.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nigeria as a nation-state is under a severe internal socio-economic and security threat. As a more general level, the threat has social, economic, political and environmental dimensions. Each of these dimensions has greatly affected the nation‘s stability, and can be traced to the ethnic militia armies, ethnic and religious conflicts, poverty, terrorism, armed robbery, corruption, economic sabotage, and environmental degradation Ilufoye (2009).
Boko Haram insurgence becomes the major problem facing Nigerians in the recent time. These groups have perpetrated several bombing that have killed millions of innocent citizens of this country Nigeria and also caused the destruction of both private and public properties worth of billion of naira. This derives from their bid to make people in the north east geo-political zone of Nigeria to embrace their view on Islamic Nigeria code and western education.
The predominant threat and security challenges in the area are emendating from un-abating attacks on Nigerian citizens, individuals, public and governmental installations, kidnapping and destruction of properties. All these effect of Boko Haram activities are serious crime against the Nigeria state, which has threatened its national security and socio-economic activities. This has posed a great challenges to the ground strategy for national security of which the primary aim is to strengthen the federal republic of Nigeria to advance her interest and objectives, to curtain instability, control crime, quality of life of every citizens, improve the welfare and the eliminate corruption Damba (2007).
Boko Haram activities, has destabilized socio-economic activities. Increased crime and destruction of both life and property of Nigerian citizens. This can be attested to by the mass movement of people living in northern part of the country most especially Maiduguri, which is the capital of Borno State. This situation has made it impossible for the citizens in that part Northern of Nigeria to carry on their legitimate businesses. It is also scaring foreign investors out of the country. Students have been forced to flee their schools.
The gravity of the crisis has made some government to vow never to allow Nigerians students from their state to go to the Northern part of Nigeria for anything. Boko Haram activities alson effected the posting of students of southern and eastern extradition on national youth service corps (NYSC) to the north, to the extent that parents are strongly resisting the posting of their children as copper to the north. Boko Haram itself, is a fatal blow to the noble objective of the scheme as a unifying strategy, the unity of Nigerian is seriously threatened by Boko Haram fundamentalist sect and therefore, considered to be a major potential terrorist threat affecting Nigerian mostly on the part of socio-economic activities of the country.
PROJECT TOPIC- BOKO HARAM CRISIS AND THE SOCIO-POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT OF NIGERIA
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is no longer news that the activities of the Boko Haram and other similar political and religious sects have often led to loss of properties, lives, and even the breakdown of laws and order, peace and security in the Nigerian society at large. It has been observed that a lot of attacks have been made onto many states, which include even the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. What puzzles most observers is the fact that most of these attacks are not carried out by suicide bombers yet the culprits often get away unharmed.
This leaves a big question mark in our security agencies as regards to their duty in the protection of lives and properties, and the procurement of weapons of mass destruction to combat this menace which is eating deep into the Nigerian society today. Without being said, Boko Haram crisis do not have any advantage instead it is a vicious and nefarious act carried out by individuals for their selfish desires, the motivating factor being to control the religious and political power. However, it is the above stated problems that instigated the researcher into investigating on the topic the impact of Boko Haram on the Socio-political development of Nigeria.
The following research question were formulated to guide the study.
- What are the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria?
- What are the socio-political and religious implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria?
- In what ways in which the Nigeria citizens can serve as a helping hand in tackling the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria?
- What are the possible solution to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to determine Boko Haram crisis and the socio-political development of Nigeria: specifically the objectives sought to:
- Ascertain the remote and immediate causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
- Ascertain the socio-political and religious implication of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
- Determine the ways in which the Nigeria citizens can serve as a helping hand in tackling the Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria
- To make suggestions to the federal government on how to tackle the Boko Haram crisis.
- Research Hypotheses
H0: Unemployment is not major causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria
H1: Unemployment is a major causes of boko Haram crisis in Nigeria
H0: Socio-political and religious crisis is not implication to Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
H1: Socio-political and religious crisis is a great implication to Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria.
1.5 Theoretical Framework
According to Ohara (2003:63), knowledge does not exist in a vacuum. In every descriptive, there is a body of theories that provides the explanation for observable phenomena in that field. This section attempt to draw analogy between established theories and the problem being investigated where such analogies drawn even support the importance of the study. The theoretical requirement of this work is draw from frustration-aggression theory which I believe provided a detailed explanation for the emergence of Boko Haram‖ insurgence in Nigeria.
The theory was propounded and developed by John Dollard and his research associates initially developed in 1939 and has been expanded and modified by school like Leonard Berlowitz (1962) and Audrey Yales (1962). The theory properly created the analogy used within this research to explain the dynamics in Boko Haram terrorism. According to John Dollard (1939) he explained that it seems to be that most common explanation for violent behaviour stemmed from inability to fulfill needs.
In attempts to explain aggression, scholars points to the difference between what people feel they want or deserve to what they actually gets the want get-ratio (teocrabends 1969) and difference between expected need satisfaction‖ and actual need satisfaction (Davies, 1960). When expectation does not meet attainment the tendency is for people to confront those hold responsible for frustrating their ambitions.
Therefore, frustration aggression provides that aggression is not just undertaking as a natural reaction or instinct as realist and biological theorist assumes but that is the outcome of frustration and that is in a situation where the desire of an individual is denied either directly or by the indirectly consequence of the way the society is structured, the feeling of disappointment may lead such a person to express his anger through violence that will be directed those he holds responsible or people who are directly or indirect related to them (Akwen, 2011).
As described by John Dollard, that most common explanation for violence behaviour is instability to fulfill needs. According to Bishop Mathew Hassan Kukah, states that Boko Haram terrorism is a product of bad government and corruption and therefore, fueled by politics (Mayor 2011). In Nigeria, approximately 76 percent of northern on less than one dollar per day. School are un- finance and the standard of education is so poor that graduate are often unfit for employment.
The worst of it all is the Nigerian government poor responses to the northern desire on economic and security conditions which has fueled resentment, making many young men vulnerable to Boko Haram recrulters. but poverty and suffering to the region and was therefore, forbidden or Haram‖ in Islam (Reutrs, 2012). This is the central government argument that led Robert Gurr‘s (1970) relative deprivation these addressed in saying that:
The greater the discrepancy, however marginal between what is sought and what seems attainable, the greater will be the chances that anger and violence will result (Ted, 1970). A part from Nigeria government being corrupt in the year 1999, the police claimed down on Boko Haram members who were ignoring a law requiring motorcyclist to wear helmets. That sparked a furious back lash.
Police stations and government offices in Borno state were burned to ground hundreds of citizens released in prison break, innocent citizens died on bomb explosion, public and private properties destroyed etc. as the violence spread across northern Nigeria. The last stroke that broke the camel‘s back was the government and its army reacting with force, the leader of the Boko Haram group Mohammed Yusuf was captured and shot dead in police custody. Five days of fighting left more than 800 people dead (Morgan, 2011).
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the study
The scope of this research study is quite broad that it encompasses the investigation of Boko Haram crisis in Nigeria from the year 2002 till date. This is because of its spontaneous nature. In view of the limitations of this study, various factors contributed in affecting the researchers comprehensiveness and totality in carrying out the study. Among these factors include, scarcity of relevant materials on the issue due to its continuous evolving nature, financial constraints, some questionnaire administered were not returned and most of the respondents failed to respond to some important questions and other tasking campus engagements and the fact that the crisis was still occurring at the period of research.
Despite the above mentioned short comings and hindrances, the research study no doubt turned out to be successful.
1.7 Significance of the Study There are numerous reasons why this research is useful, the research work would be of great importance to students and lectures in practice of how to carry out further research in the same area. It will help the government to solve some likely problems that might encounter in terms of development in Nigeria. Also, the research will act as a guide to the government in their quest to quell the problems associated with security, ethnic crisis and political or religious crisis in Nigeria.