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PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY

PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

          The purpose of the project was to review the etiology of sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency. The concern was predicated upon the observation that while the standard of performance has improved tremendously, the level of sportsmanship has declined considerably, due to the high ranking of sports hooliganism in the above constituency, which has brought disrepute to the game of

football especially in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency. It is also obvious to sports hooliganism the way media reports label indiscipline in sports/sports violence on daily basis. Debendotte (1988) observed that sports hooliganism or violence is a serious problem in view of the numerous cases of sports riots and public disturbances among secondary schools. The great sociologist Eridunming (1999) notes that

hooliganism and violence remain a crucial social issue in modern sports because sports are activities designed to create tension, violent ambition, aggression rather than relieving or discharging it, so that sports will be patriarchal phenomena in the society, and not conflict between each other. Adbal (1989) emphasized winning syndrome as the major problem that deprived youths the pleasure to participate in

sports, because the issue of sportsmanship seems to be something of the past. Although all are not the fact because sports hooliganism is often not always experienced or accepted. Therefore, there are issue prejudicial to the spirit of fair play that are directly associated with sports. This has caused a lot of damage to Ishielu/Ezza North constituency. They are winning syndrome, poor officiating, reward,

politics, poor preparation, ignorance, vengeance, inherent, fanatism and others.   Some of the above were experienced during the competition organized for some secondary schools during their inter-house sports activities. Even the constituency tournament played in 2007 and 2008 among the secondary schools was so unfortunate that almost the whole matches were played out of joy as a result of violent behaviour

during the competition. Wrong impressions were given to the organizers, the athletes and mostly the officials. Much accusation was leveled against the referees who they complained that they officiated partially. Even the tournament was paused during the knockout stages. When the hooligans and fanatics were threatening the officials and even the  players, although the matches were later completed but it

was like a tug of war. An example was the match played during the knockout stage between comprehensive secondary school and community secondary school Nkomoro Ogboji on 28th August 2008. the match was marred as the hooligans entered the field and took the ball away and accused the referees of an alleged plan to send them out of the competition hence they have already awarded a

penalty kick against them [community secondary school Nkomoro Ogboji]  so early in such a crucial match. The high level of sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North Constituency has reduced sports to a different phase and colour which makes it un-interesting and unless proper orientation and adequate security is employed in the constituency, it will be very difficult to make sports lively as in other areas.

PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY.

1.2  Statement of the Problem

          Sports have been considered as beneficial to the benefactor or to secondary school student as well as sports lovers and the societies at large. Through sports, the much needed social attributes, such as creating friendship, spirit of sportsmanship have been developed. Anyanwu (1981) emphasized that violence is manifested in an act committed either by participants or spectators to cause or threaten to

cause any physical harm on another participant, official or spectator. And the major causes of sports hooliganism is the issue of Nigerian sports scene in general, which has given the impression that good sportsmanship has given way to unethical behaviour, all in the name of winning the match at all costs. Again Anyanwu, (1981) Lamented that the advertised social values of fair play, friendliness and

sportsmanship in sports appear to have been lip service all in an effort to emerge victorious in competitions. Therefore, this study is designed to investigate and highlight some of the causes and consequences of sports hooliganism and the possible ways of minimizing the problems in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency.

1.3  Research Questions

          For the purpose of this research work, the following research questions have been formulated.

  1. Does the use of mercenaries (tired players) during secondary schools sports competitions cause sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North Constituency?
  2. Will the desire to win at all costs significantly contribute to sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency?
  3. Do you believe that most of sports officials including the referee do not know the rules of the game they are to officiate?
  4. Will the fans significantly contribute to sports hooliganism among secondary schools in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency?
  5. Do you believe that players attitude during sports competition can trigger off sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency?
  6. Will poor officiating significantly contribute to sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency?
  7. Will games masters/mistresses significantly contribute to sports hooliganism?
  8. Will law enforcement officers significantly contribute to sports hooliganism in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency?

PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY.

1.4  Research Hypotheses

          The following hypotheses were specifically tested.

  1. The use of mercenaries during secondary schools sports competitions significantly contribute to sports hooliganism
  2. The desire to win at all cost contributes to the sports hooliganism
  3. The sports officials including the referees significantly contribute to sports hooliganism
  4. The fans will significantly contribute to sports hooliganism.
  5. The players attitude during sports competition will not significantly contribute to sports hooliganism
  6. Poor officiating will contribute to sports hooliganism
  7. Games masters/mistresses will not significantly contribute to sports hooliganism
  8. Law enforcement officers will not significantly contribute to sports hooliganism

1.5  Delimitation of the Study

          This study was delimited as follows:

  1. The Study attempted to find out the incidence, the causes and consequences of sports hooliganism in selected secondary schools.
  2. The study was delimited to Ishielu/Ezza North Constituency.
  3. The information required for this study was delimited to teachers in selected secondary schools.

1.6  Limitations of Study

          The researcher encountered the following problems in the course of the study.

  1. The behavioural attitude of some of he principals and staff affected the study. In some of the selected schools. Some tutors were reluctant to supply the accurate information needed. The researcher therefore, interacted with his colleagues (Games masters) in these schools on the importance of the findings that will in future be beneficial to all.
  2. The questionnaire was the instrument for data collection in this study. The study of the course was subjected to the weaknesses inherent in a questionnaire format that required individuals to accurately convey their internalized perceptions. To ameliorate these limitations the researcher implored the respondents to carefully and honestly respond to the items of the questionnaire without any reservations.
  3. The study could not cover all the secondary schools in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency due to non-availability of time to allow for effective coverage. The researcher therefore, made use of research assistants to ensure adequate and effective coverage of the sampled areas.

1.7  Significance of the Study

          The research findings of this study will identify some of the factors which lead to sports hooliganism among secondary schools in Ishielu/Ezza North constituency. It will also modify people’s behaviour towards sports competitions, because, it is not the result of the competition that matters but the participation and spirit of sportsmanship.

          The study may be justified also on the contributions it will make to the body of knowledge in sports management in general and to schools and societies in particular.

PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY.

1.8  Definition of Terms

          The following terms have been operationally defined for better understanding of this study.

  1. SPORT: This is “disport” which means to divert oneself from the rigors of daily routine of life by playing some physical activities.
  2. SPORTS: This refers to any particular game, play or mode of amusement including games as well as fishing, sailing, hunting, swimming, and similar activities.
  3. GAMES: A game is a contest, physical or mental conducted according to set rules or purposes and lasts until a definite limit is reached, such as a set time or a certain number of winning or points.
  4. HOOLIGANISM: Disturbance in the street and in the field of play or other public places that may lead to riots or that is contrary to prudence, law and order.
  5. HOOLIGAN: One of the members of a gang of disorderly persons making disturbances in the street or other public places like football field during play.
  6. FAN: A non-neutral supporter of spectator filled with excessive enthusiasm for a particular team or sportsman as a way of identifying with the group.
  7. AGGRESSION: The initiation, of an attack with intent to injure within the realm of sports.
  8. ANATICISM: A show of over enthusiasm in any case, which may lead to unnecessary destruction of lives or properties.
  9. MATCH; This means to test against, to testify with, that is person able to meet or compete with another as his equal in strength and skills.
  10. SPORTSMANSHIP: This means fair play or ability to accept defeat and winning during competition.
  11. SPECTATORS: People that came to watch and cheer players or athletes.
  12. OFFICIALS: Sport organizers such as referee and linesmen etc.
  13. PARTICIPANTS: People like spectators, players and fans who take part in sports activities.
  14. COACH: Is a man or woman whose work is to instruct participants in the techniques and methods of one or more branches of sports.
  15. PSTCHING UP: To prepare somebody or oneself mentally for something.

PROJECT TOPIC- CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF SPORTS HOOLIGANISM AMONGST SECONDARY IN ISHIELU/EZZA CONSTITUENCY.

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