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The destiny of Nigeria in terms of leadership style is now in our hands.  The unity and progress of Nigeria leaders is at our own doorsteps.  If Nigeria will survive this leadership style measure, it is for us to decide.  The hope of the generation yet unborn is in our hands.  If we decide to keep them happy; that is our responsibility.  If we decide to keep them in our endless misery; that is our responsibility. Furthermore, this is the time to cherish democratic sense and drop out the spirit of discrimination, favouritism, quota system, away from our reasoning because it will only help us in destroying things not in building our nation structures and sense of belonging as good entity that comes from a defined home.  Afterall, we have intellectual persons who can handle political leadership properly as far as it is the one accepted by the masses which is known as democratic dispensation as authentic and pure in nature.



Background of the study

This work as the name implies has to job with the solution to the Nigeria leaders and its leadership styles which was not auguring well with the good people of Nigeria in particular. But before this, it is clearly that the problems in terms of leadership styles in Nigeria is simply and squarely a failure of leadership. In fact, to be sincerely that there is nothing wrong with the Nigeria land, climatic

condition, water and even air we are breath in and out or any other thing else where.  Consequently, the major problems or Nigerian problems is the unwillingness or inability of our leaders to rise to the responsibility, to the challenge of personal example which are the hallmarks of true leadership which calls for real democracy that is, government of the people.

It is a system of government which gives periodic opportunities for the masses to choose their leader either direct or indirect democracy. According to the story told says that Murtala Muhammed seized power in July 1975 public servants in Lagos were found on seat at 3.30am.  Even the hold-up traffic that had defeated every solution and defiled every regime vanished

overnight from the street?  Why?  The new rules reputation for ruthlessness was sufficient to transform in the course of only one night the style and habit of Nigeria’s charily, capital.  That the character of one man could establish that quantum change in a people’s social behaviour was nothing less than miraculous.  But it shows that social miracles can happen.

We know, that transformation was short-lived, it had begun to fade even before the tragic assassination of Murtala Muhammed.  In the final analysis, a leader’s non-sense reputation might induce a favourable climate but in order to effect lasting change, it must be followed up with a radical programme of social and economic re-organisation or at least a well-conceived and

consistent agenda of reform which Nigeria stood, and stand, in dire need of. I am not here recommending ruthlessness as necessary qualification for Nigerian leadership.  Quite on the contrary, what I am saying is that Nigeria is not beyond change in terms of the way by which leader people, but I am saying that Nigeria can change today if the drastic measure should be put in place

and if she discovers leaders who have leadership acumen, and the ability and even vision as well.  Such person can stand in everything, no matter what it may cost him or her, because it is the obligation to enlighten citizens to lead the way in which their discovery and to create enabling environment and good atmosphere conducive to their emergence.

If this conscious effort is not made, good leaders, like good money, will be driven out by bad eggs. You see, whenever two Nigerians meet, their conservation will sooner or later slide into a litany of our national deficiencies. The deplorable condition of our leaders in Nigeria has become the subject of our small talk in much the same way as the weather is for the English.

But there is a great danger in consigning a life-and-death issue to the daily routine of small talk. No one can do much about the weather; we must accept it and live with or under it.  But national bad habits are a different matter; we resign ourselves to them at our peril. In fact, the aims and objectives of research is to challenge the ugly situation of our leaders and its problems basically on

the side of styles of leadership which needs thorough amendment.  It calls on all thoughtful Nigerians to rise up again and reject those habits which cripple our aspiration and inhabit our chances of becoming a modern and attractive e country in quota.  Indeed, Nigeria has many reasonable men and women of different timbers and calibans, of good conscience, and at same time

has tremendous number of gifted and talented persons.  But why is it then that all these patriots make so little impact on the life of our nation?  Why is it that our corruption, gross ineptitude, our noisy vulgarity, our selfishness, our ineptitude seem so much stronger than the good influences at work in our society?

Why do the good among us seem so helpless while the worst are full of vile energy? I agreed that Nigeria is a nation favoured by providence. I believe there are individuals as well as nations who on account of peculiar gifts and circumstances, are commandeered by history of facilitating mankind’s advancement.

Nigeria is such a nation with vast human and material wealth with which she is endowed bestows on her a role in African and the world which no one else can assume or fulfill.  The fear that should nightly haunt our leaders, but does not, is that they may already have betrayed irretrievably Nigeria’s high destiny.

The countless billions that is generous providence poured into our national coffers in the last ten years between (1972-1982) would have been enough to launch.  This nation into the middle-rank of developed nations and transformed the lives of our poor and needy.  But what have we done with it?  Stolen and salted away by people in power and their accomplices.

Squandernania by the politicians, embezzlement of public fund, mismanagement of the economy in uncontrolled importation of all kinds of useless consumer merchandise from every corner of the globe.  Embezzled through inflated contracts to an increasing army of party loyalists who have neither the desire nor the competence to execute their contracts.

Consumed in the escalating salaries of a grossly over-staffed and unproductive public service.  And so on ad-infinitum. Does it ever worry us that history which neither personal wealth nor power can pre-empt will pass terrible judgement on us, pronounce amathema on our names when we have accomplished our betrayal and passed on?

We have lost the twentieth century, are we bent on seeing that our children also lose the twenty-first?  God forbid such action! Talk of tribalical – Tribalism in Nigeria, you find out that, the words, tribalism, quota-system, nepotism and favouritism etc.  It is clearly to everybody’s notice that, these four words I mentioned contributed to the downfall of Nigeria education, Nigeria politics, economy, social and religion and cultural background.

In fact, tribalism in Nigeria has caused a lot of havoc to the good people of Nigeria to the extent that if somebody from Hausa happened to become a leader of one particular position or the other, he or she will not allow any person from Yoruba or Igbo to come near him or her because the sentiment has broken the channel that connected the three (3) tribal together that was why they hardly relate with each other.

To lack of Igbo and Hausa is another problem all together because two of them have shed blood, which means there is no way to become brothers again in this world regard to the religious crisis all over the world.  Talk of quota-system where position are been shared to prominent men in power before you know it all, everything will be all over, so the poor ones will be dangling around the

offices without knowing fully well that the whole chances has been occupied by the people that are direct by higher rank politician.  But it is not a thing of joy and not something we should write home about in our various places. Finally, the last but not the list is the word “favouritism”.  According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, define favouritism as the act of unfairly

treating one person better than others because you like them better. In fact, let us take for instance, in Ebonyi State, that is, what is going in UBE where partiality and favouritism have taken over in all the offices in Universal Basic Education.  It is very bad to notice that if you are looking for teaching position, you will not see it or less went as far as in buying somebody who will stand behind you as

your own God-fatherism before you will be employed as teacher.  So capable or competent teacher, even the qualification has nothing to do as far as you have God-fatherism. Nothing in Nigeria’s political history captures her problem of national integration more graphically than the chequered fortune of the word tribe in her vocabulary.

Tribe has been accepted at one time as a friend, rejected as an enemy at another, and finally smuggled in through the back-door as an accomplice. In the life time of many Nigerians who still enjoy an active public career, Nigeria was called a mere geographical expression not only by the British who had an interest in keeping it so, but even by our nationalists when it suited them to

retreat into tribe to check their more successful rivals from other parts of the country.  According to a student in Ibadan, who was an eye witness to that momentous occasion when Chief Obafemi Awolowo stole the leadership of Western Nigeria from Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe in broad day light on the floor of the Western House of Assembly and sent the great Zik scampering back to the Niger where he came.

Someday when we shall have outgrown tribal politics or when our children shall have done so, sober historians of the Nigerian nation will see that event as the abortion of a pan-Nigerian vision which, however, ineptly, the N.C.NC. tried to have and to hold.  No matter how anyone attempts to explain away that even in retrospect, it was the death of a dream–Nigeria in which a citizen could

live and work in a place of his choice anywhere and pursue any legitimate goal open to his fellows; a Nigeria in which an Easterner might aspire to be premier in the West and a Northerner become mayor of Enugu.  That dream-Nigeria suffered a death blow from Awolowo’s success in the Western House of Assembly in 1951.

Therefore, it was an unrealistic dream at the best of times, but some young, educated men and women of our generation did dream it. And though it died, it never fully faded from our consciousness.  You could always find idealistic people from every part of Nigeria who were prepared to do battle if anyone especially European or American should ask them;

what is your tribe? I am a Nigerian, they would say haughtily, drawing themselves to their fullest height.  Though alive and well tribe had an embarrassing odour. Then a strange thing happened at our independence in 1960.  Our national anthem, our very hymn of deliverance from British colonial bondage, was written for us by a British woman who unfortunately had not been properly

briefed on the current awkwardness of the word tribe.  So we found ourselves on independence morning, rolling our tongues around the very same trickster godling.  “Though tribe and tongue may differ in brotherhood we stand”. It was a most ominous beginning.  And not surprisingly we did not stand too long in brotherhood.

Within six years we were standing or sprawling on a soil soaked in patricidal blood.  When it finally ceased to flow we were ready for a new anthem written this time by ourselves. And we took care to expunge the jinxed word tribe. And to be absolutely certain we buried the alien anthem in its own somewhat evangelical hymn juice-concocted incidentally by another British woman, the third in a

remarkable line, the first being Lugard’s girl friend who christened us Nigeria – and invoked the natural dance rhythm of our high life to mark our national rebirth. But all this self-conscious whirl to banish tribe has proved largely futile because a word will stay around as long as there is work for it to do.  In Nigeria, in spite of our protestations, there is plenty of work for tribe.

Our threatening gestures against it have been premature, half-hearted or plain deceitful. A Nigerian child seeking admission into a federal school, a student wishing to enter a college or university, a graduate seeking employment in public service, a business man tendering for a contract, a citizen applying for a passport, filing a report with the police on seeking access to any of the hundred

thousand avenues controlled by the state, will sooner or later fill out a form which requires him to confess his tribe or less crudely and more hypocritically, his state of origin. Intelligent and useful discussion of tribalism is very often thwarted by vagueness.  What is tribalism?  I will spare you a comprehensive academic definition.

For practical purpose, let us say that tribalism is discrimination against a citizen because of his place of birth. Everyone agrees that there are manifestations of tribal cultures which we cannot condemn; for instance, peculiar habits of dress, food, music, and language, etc. In fact many of these manifestations are positive and desirable and confer richness on our national culture.

But to prevent a citizen from living or working anywhere in his country or from participating in the social, political, economic life of the community in which he chooses to live is another matter although. Our constitution disallows it even though, like its makers, it may manage to say and unsay on certain crucial issues.

Prejudice against outsiders or strangers is an attitude one finds everywhere.  But no modern state can lend its support to such prejudice without undermining its own progress and civilization.  America which we copy when it suits us, should provide an excellent example to us, in this connection, that although we may not be able to legislate prejudice and bigotry out of the hearts

and minds of individuals citizens, the state itself and all its institutions must not practice, endorse or condone such habits.  Not long ago, was writing a recommendation for a postgraduate student seeking admission into the University of Pittsburgh, U.S.A.  The form had the following direction in bold print to recommenders.

“Please make no state which would indicate the applicant’s race, creed or national origin”.

Defenders of the Nigeria system may point out that the American nation is two hundred years old while Nigeria is only twenty.  But don’t forget our declared ambition to become an advanced nation in the shortest possible time, preferably by the year 2020.



The main reason of this research inquiry study is to bring down the major problem that have thwarted the smooth running of good leadership in Nigeria since the creation of Nigeria, stated from colony era to independence stage to this present hours we are, which we called Democratic period for theory not in practice as well.

This inquiry-purpose is mainly made for panacea which is the ultimate ways to reduce ugly situation of Nigeria method or system of governance or leadership in orderly manner.  Because our so called leaders does not have leadership acumen within themselves and was where the researcher want to use Community of Inquiry systematic mode to correct the bad impression of our leaders in Nigeria.


The main importance of this research work is to enable us know how to handle any position given to us properly, not ostracizing the mind of people.  It will help us to know the fore meaning of leadership and its styles of leading as I regard to authentic democratic dispensation.  I know that after the exposition of this problematic encounter that is attacking our so called leaders when once they occupies one position or the other, it will be surely become a note of lesson to whoever want to occupy any position no matter what it may be, either president seat or any one at all.


As a case of divergent in understanding, that is, was as a result of individual difference.  I therefore, decidedly-decide to consult different types of textbook, newspapers, magazine, written by different face of authors in our society.


The areas or the coverage of this work or research is basically based on the areas of leadership ways of leading and its stylish, pattern and even the manner of approach to their people. And this is where research has assess to cover properly.

  1. Tribalism – is discrimination against a citizen because of his place of birth.
  2. Panacea – Something that will solve all the problems of a particular situation.
  • Assassination – the process of murdering an important or famous person, especially for political purposes.
  1. Hypocritically – a person who pretends to have moral standards or opinions that they do not actually have.
  2. Concocted is a past tense of concoct which means – to make something, especially food or drink, be mixing different.


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