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# PROJECT TOPIC- CONCEPTS OF TEST, MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN EDUCATION

## PROJECT TOPIC- CONCEPTS OF TEST, MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN EDUCATION

### INTRODUCTION

During our discussion of curriculum development and general methods in education, we gave the importance of objectives in education.  We also distinguished between Instructional and behavioural objectives.  We observed that curriculum implementation and lesson delivery often culminate in ascertaining whether the objectives we set out to achieve were actually achieved.  This is often called evaluation.

This unit introduces you to some important concepts associated with ascertaining whether objectives have been achieved or not.  Basically, the unit takes you through the meanings of test, measurement assessment and evaluation in education.

Their functions are also discussed.  You should understand the fine distinctions between these concepts and the purpose of each as you will have recourse to them later in this course and as a professional teacher.

#### OBJECTIVES:

By the end of this unit, you should be able to:

1. distinguish clearly between test, measurement, assessment and evaluation;
2. state the purposes of assessment and evaluation in education; and
3. give the techniques of assessment in education.

#### EVALUATION IN EDUCATION

These concepts are often used interchangeably by practitioners and if they have the same meaning.  This is not so.  As a teacher, you should be able to distinguish one from the other and use any particular one at the appropriate time to discuss issues in the classroom.

#### Measurement

The process of measurement as it implies involves carrying out actual measurement in order to assign a quantitative meaning to a quality i.e. what is the length of the chalkboard?

Determining this must be physically done.

Measurement is therefore a process of assigning numerals to objects, quantities or events in other to give quantitative meaning to such qualities.

In the classroom, to determine a child’s performance, you need to obtain quantitative measures on the individual scores of the child.  If the child scores 80 in Mathematics, there is no other interpretation you should give it.  You cannot say he has passed or failed.

## PROJECT TOPIC- CONCEPTS OF TEST, MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION IN EDUCATION

#### Measurement and Evaluation  in Education  (PDE 105)

Measurement stops at ascribing the quantity but not making value judgement on the child’s

performance.

#### Assessment

Assessment is a fact finding activity that describes conditions that exists at a particular time.

Assessment often involves measurement to gather data. However, it is the domain of assessment to organise the measurement data into interpretable forms on a number of variables.

Assessment in educational setting may describe the progress students have made towards a given educational goal at a point in time.  However, it is not concerned with the explanation of the underlying reasons and does not proffer recommendations for action.  Although, there may be some implied judgement as to the satisfactoriness or otherwise of the situation.

In the classroom, assessment refers to all the processes and products which are used to describe the nature and the extent of pupils’ learning. This also takes cognizance of the degree of correspondence of such learning with the objectives of instruction.

Some educationists in contrasting assessment with evaluation opined that while evaluation is generally used when the subject is not persons or group of persons but the effectiveness or otherwise of a course or programme of teaching or method of teaching, assessment is used generally for measuring or determining personal attributes (totality of the student, the environment of learning and the student’s accomplishments).

A number of instrument are often used to get measurement data from various sources.  These include Tests, aptitude tests, inventories, questionnaires, observation schedules etc.  All these sources give data which are organised to show evidence of change and the direction of that change.  A test is thus one of the assessment instruments.  It is used in getting quantitative data.

#### Evaluation

Evaluation adds the ingredient of value judgement to assessment.  It is concerned with the application of its findings and implies some judgement of the effectiveness, social utility or desirability of a product, process or progress in terms of carefully defined and agreed upon objectives or values.  Evaluation often includes recommendations for constructive action.  Thus, evaluation is a qualitative measure of the prevailing situation.  It calls for evidence of effectiveness, suitability, or goodness of the programme.

It is the estimation of the worth of a thing, process or programme in order to reach meaningful decisions about that thing, process or programme.

#### The Purposes of Evaluation

According to Oguniyi (1984), educational evaluation is carried out from time to time for the following purposes:

(i) to determine the relative effectiveness of the programme in terms of students’ behavioural output;

#### Measurement and Evaluation  in Education  (PDE 105)

(ii) to make reliable decisions about educational planning;

(iii) to ascertain the worth of time, energy and resources invested in a programme;

(iv) to identify students’ growth or lack of growth in acquiring desirable knowledge, skills, attitudes and societal values;

(v) to help teachers determine the effectiveness of their teaching techniques and learning materials;

(vi) to help motivate students to want to learn more as they discover their progress or lack of progress in given tasks;

(vii) to encourage students to develop a sense of discipline and systematic study habits;

(ix) to acquaint parents or guardians with their children’s performances;

(x) to identify problems that might hinder or prevent the achievement of set goals;

(xi) to predict the general trend in the development of the teaching-learning process;

(xii) to ensure an economical and efficient management of scarce resources;

(xiii) to provide an objective basis for determining the promotion of students from one class to another as well as the award of certificates;

(xiv) to provide a just basis for determining at what level of education the possessor of a certificate should enter a career.

ACTIVITY 1

1. Distinguish clearly between Assessment, Measurement and Evaluation.

Other definitions of evaluation as given by practitioners are:

1. A systematic process of determining what the actual outcomes are but it also involves judgement of desirability of whatever outcomes are demonstrated. (Travers, 1955)
1. The process of ascertaining the decision of concern, selecting appropriate information and collecting and analysing information in order to report summary data useful to decision makers in selecting among alternatives (Alkin, 1970).
1. The process of delineating, obtaining and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives (Stufflebeam et al 1971)

In line with this fine distinction between assessment and evaluation, we shall briefly deliberate a little more here on evaluation and leave the discussion on assessment to the latter units.

#### Measurement and Evaluation  in Education  (PDE 105)

ACTIVITY 1I

1. Why is evaluation important to the classroom teacher?