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PROJECT TOPIC- SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIN (IV) OXIDE NANOPARTICLES BY SOL-GEL PROCESS

PROJECT TOPIC- SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIN (IV) OXIDE
NANOPARTICLES BY SOL-GEL PROCESS

 

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE RESEARCH

Miniaturization is a general aim of the technological development that is taking place to produce smaller, faster, lighter and cheaper devices with greater functionality, while using less raw materials and consuming less energy. Research on nanomaterials is a step towards miniaturization of technology that will contribute significantly towards a suitable usage of raw materials and energy1. When we bring constituents of materials down to the nanoscale, the properties change. Some materials used for electrical insulations can become conductive and other materials can become transparent or soluble.
Crystalline tin oxide is a wide-gap semiconductor (~ 3.6 eV), which, in its as-grown state, is typically n-type. Because of its optical (transparent for visible light and reflective for infra-red) and electrical properties, it is allied to good chemical and mechanical stability. It has wide range of applications such as solid-state gas sensor, transparent conducting electrodes, rechargeable Li batteries, liquid crystal displays, etc, 2-5. Their properties depend on microstructure, impurities and size effects of particles.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

A country is said to be technologically advanced if she can produce smaller, faster, lighter and cheaper devices with greater functionality while using less raw materials and consuming less energy. Production of such devices can not be achieved using materials with bulk particles because some of the properties of bulk particles are hidden.
SnO2 nanoparticles were synthesized to solve these technological problems, with particular interest in incorporating them into the devices such as gas sensors, solar cells, doped semiconductors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and transistors, electrodes for lithium ion batteries, catalyst supports, and super capacitors. The routes to the synthesis of these nanoparticles were always difficult because of high electrical energy requirements and high cost of chemicals needed for the synthesis. Sol-gel synthesis of these nanoparticles solves these problems of high energy requirement and high cost because the power requirement is low, and the chemicals are cheap and readily available.

1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES

The specific research objectives were to:
 synthesize SnO2 nanoparticles at controlled crystal size using sol-gel process;
 investigate the effect of reaction temperature on the structure of the synthesized SnO2 nanoparticles;

PROJECT TOPIC- SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TIN (IV) OXIDE
NANOPARTICLES BY SOL-GEL PROCESS

 

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