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PROJECT TOPIC- DETECTION OF QUINOLONES ON THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC PLATES USING SIGMA- AND PIACCEPTORS IN 1,4-DIOXANE

PROJECT TOPIC- DETECTION OF QUINOLONES ON THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC PLATES USING SIGMA- AND PIACCEPTORS IN 1,4-DIOXANE

Abstract

The use of sigma- and pi-acceptors for the detection of some quinolones on thin layer chromatographic plates was investigated. Thin layer chromatographic plates, coated with silica gel were air-dried and stored in an oven at llO°C for 30 minutes. Before use, the plates were
allowed to cool to room temperature. Each of the drug samples (Reference, ciprom, Ofloxacin) was spotted twice on a pair of coated plates. he plates were then placed vertically in a development tank containing a solvent system and allowed to stand undisturbed until the solvent front reached 15cm from the origin. The plates were then removed, air-dried and sprayed with an appropriate locating reagent (iodine or chloranilic acid) and examined for colour formationlstability. In another set of experiments, the plates were counter-sprayed with dimethyl formamide (DMF) and re-examined for reaction. The results showed that the chromogens fonned from iodine and chloranilic acid were reddish brown and violet respectively. The reddish brown colour chinged to yellow meanwhile the violet colour disappeared after six and 20 minutes, respectively. On counter-spraying with DMF, the reddish brown colour changed to yellow and there was no increase in intensity in the reference drug, but there was, in the test drugs. However, the intensity of the violet colour was generally increased. There were no significant difference~( p0.05 for each) in the Rfv alues of iodine and chloranilic acid chromog-e ns of all the drugs. Sigma- and pi-acceptors can be applied in qualitative detection of quinolones.

INTREDUCTION

Sigma- and pi-acceptors are aromatic systems containing electron-withdrawing substituents [I]. Thus, acceptor complexation is based on the reaction of some drugs (nelectron donors) with sigma-acceptors such as iodine, or with pi-acceptors such as 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane;
2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano1-, 4-benzoquinone; tetracyanoethylene; 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-14-benzoquinone (bromanil); and 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzoquinone (chloranil) [2]. These compounds readily form complexes with donor molecules giving rise to chromogens thus making
them versatile in pharmaceutical and clinical analysis.

 The colour formed with such donor molecules has been reported to have intensities of donor-receptor complexes [3]. Sigma- and pi-acceptors have been found to be very useful as detecting reagents in drugs and chemicals possessing nitrogen and other donor molecules [2-61. Research workers have detected Padrenergic blocking agents [4], antidepressant drugs [6], alkaloids [7], cehalosporins [8], diuretics and oral hypoglycaemic drugs [9] as well as penicillins [lo,! 11 using acceptor complexation. Ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin are both 4-quinolones containing a carboxylic acid moiety in the 3 position of the basic ring structure, a fluorine substituent at position 6, and a piperazine moiety at position 7 [12].

These drugs are potent bactericidal agents against E.. coli and various species of Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, and Neisseria [13]. They are generally well tolerated [14] and microbial resistance to their action does not develop rapidly [15]. The importance of these drugs espccially in the third world countries can be estimated by the high success rates recorded in their use in some high morbidity and mortality ailments.
Attempts at quantitative detection of ciprofloxacin in our laboratories by charge transfer complexation using a spectrophotometer have failed principally because of the inability of complexes to remain stable enough for detection.
Furthermore, this method is cumbersome and expensive, especially in least and less developed countries. Thus, the use of iodine and chloranilic acid for the qualitative analysis of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on thin layer chromatographic plates is hereby discussed. 

PROJECT TOPIC- DETECTION OF QUINOLONES ON THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC PLATES USING SIGMA- AND PIACCEPTORS IN 1,4-DIOXANE

Materials and Methods
Materials

The following reagents were collected from commercial sources and used as supplied: chloranilic acid, hexane, iodine (BDH); ammonia, silica gel G-1 (Merck); sulphuric acid, chloroform (May and Baker); ciprofloxacin, cipro@ (ICI); ofloxacin (Hoeschst).

Methods

Preparation of suspension

One tablet each of the different drug samples was crushed to a fine powder in a clean porcelain mortar. A quantity (100mg) of each powder was transferred into a 50ml volumetric flask. A lOml volume of ammonia was added to each of these flasks and stirred with a glass rod until dissolution was achieved. I Oml of chloroform placed in a separating hnnel ws added to the above preparation and shaken for 30 seconds and the chloroform layer transferred into a beaker and kept for analysis.

Preparation of locating reagents

A 50ml volume of l,4-dioxane was placed in each of two volumetric flasks. A 0.5g quantity of each detecting reagent (iodine and chloranilic acid) was accurately weighed and transferred into each flask and dissolved by stirring. The solution was made up to volume with 1,4- dioxane to give 0.5%(w/v) solution of iodine and chloranilic acid, respectively.

Preparation of thin layer chromatographic (TLC) plates

PROJECT TOPIC- DETECTION OF QUINOLONES ON THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC PLATES USING SIGMA- AND PIACCEPTORS IN 1,4-DIOXANE

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