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PROJECT TOPIC- DETERMINE THE NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT COAT AND ITS SUITABILITY IN BREAD MAKING

PROJECT TOPIC- DETERMINE THE NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM     (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT COAT AND ITS SUITABILITY IN BREAD MAKING

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Plants are primary sources of medicines, food, shelters and other items      used by humans   every day. Their roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds provide food for humans (Amaechi, 2009; Hemingsway, 2004). Fruits are sources of minerals, fibre and vitamins which also provide essential nutrients for   the human health (Ali and Deokule, 2009). The diet of many rural and urban dwellers is deficient in protein and high in carbohydrate, the implication is high incidence of malnutrition and increased dietary disease, a situation in which children and lactating women are most vulnerable (Sadik, 1999).

While every measure is being taken by various levels of government to boost food production by conventional agriculture, a lot of interest is currently being focused on the possibilities of exploiting the vast number of less familiar plant resource of the wild. (Anwhange et al., 2004; Abdullahi and Abdullahi , 2005). Many of such wild plants have been identified but lack of data on their chemical composition has limited the prospects of their utilization (Baumer, 1995). Many reports on some lesser known seeds and fruits indicate that they could be good sources of nutrients for both man and livestock (Elemo et al., 2001).

Fruit and vegetables have health benefits for consumers, due to their content of fiber, vitamins and antioxidant compounds. It has been reported that millions of people in Sub-Saharan Africa are affected by mineral deficiency (UNICEF, 2009; UNICEF and TMI, 2004). Minerals known to be essential to a healthy body include calcium, phosphorous, cobalt, copper, fluorine, iodine, iron and sodium. The role of these minerals in body metabolism is of prime importance.

Their deficiency causes diseases, whereas their presence in excess may result in toxicity to human life        (Hashmi et al., 2007). Fruits constitute an important part of a balanced diet as they are natural source of food nutrients namely protein, carbohydrate, minerals and dietary fiber, needed by man and animals. With the global focus on increased food production and emphasis on provision of nutritive food for the worlds teeming population, it is very important to consider our locally available fruits and to determine their nutrient composition for the purpose of increasing the production of such fruits (Asibey-berko et al., 1999; Bhandari et al., 2006; Cole et al., 1980).

Examples of well known wild edible fruit species in Africa include baobab (Adansonia digitata), jackalberry (Diospyros mespiliformis), sycamore fig (Ficus sycomorus), tamarind (Tamarindus indica), shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; R black velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense) (Lamien-Meda et al., 2008) and African star apple (chrysophyllum albidum) (Adewusi and Bada, 1997). African star apple is one of the indigenous wild fruits trees with enormous potential for plantation establishment which includes its ability to reduce blood level and for the treatment of diabetes.

The fleshy pulp of the fruits is eaten especially as snack and relished by both young and old (Cenrad, 1999). The African star   apple fruit has been found to have highest content of ascorbic acid with 1000 to 3,330 mg of ascorbic acid per 100gm of edible fruit or about 100 times that of oranges and 10 times of that of guava or cashew (Asenjo, 1946). It is reported as an excellent source of vitamins, irons, flavours to diets and raw materials to some manufacturing industries (Adisa, 2000; Bada, 1997; Okafor and Fernandes, 1987; Umelo, 1997).

In addition, its seeds are a source of oil, which is used for diverse purposes. The seeds are also used for local games (Bada, 1997). The fruits also contain 90% anacardic acid, which is used industrially in protecting wood and as source of resin, while several other components of the tree including the roots and leaves are used for medicinal purposes (Adewusi, 1997; Bada, 1997). Ignorance of their food value (African star apple fruit coat) has resulted in their wastage in terms of economic returns and /or post harvest losses (Akubugwo and Ugbogu, 2007).

PROJECT TOPIC- DETERMINE THE NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM     (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT COAT AND ITS SUITABILITY IN BREAD MAKING

Main Objective

  1. To determine the nutritional content of Chrysophyllum albidum    (African star apple) fruit coat and its suitability in bread making.

Specific Objective

  1. To determine the vitamin C content of Chrysophyllum albidu( African star apple) fruit coat.

2. To evaluate the suitability of the Chrysophyllum albidum fruit coat in bread making.

PROJECT TOPIC- DETERMINE THE NUTRITIONAL CONTENT OF CHRYSOPHYLLUM ALBIDUM     (AFRICAN STAR APPLE) FRUIT COAT AND ITS SUITABILITY IN BREAD MAKING

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