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PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF BIOREMEDIATION ON THE COMPACTION PARAMETERS, CBR, AND PERMEABILITY OF OIL POLLUTED SOIL

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF BIOREMEDIATION ON THE COMPACTION PARAMETERS, CBR, AND PERMEABILITY OF OIL POLLUTED SOIL

 

ABSTRACT

Environmental pollution with petroleum and petrochemical products has been recognized as one of the most important and serious challenges facing environment engineers. Disposal from mechanic sites, accidental leakages from petroleum carrying ships, vandalization of pipelines, have all contributed to the current common oil pollution in Nigeria today.
The currently used physical and chemical remediation are effective for the degradation of petroleum products but the affected medium lose the desired properties. Apart, they frequently produce many hazardous compounds which are harmful for living beings. In contrast, bioremediation is effective in terms of safety of the desired properties, but long term tolerance studies are needed before it’s being recommended for large scale use.
Bioremediation of engine oil-polluted, and diesel polluted lateritic soil samples were carried out; using indigenous oil-degrading bacteria isolated from deliberately polluted soil samples. Isolates were subjected to biochemical tests, and identified as pseudomonas. The engineering properties of polluted samples were tested as the bioremediation proceeds. The result showed that the polluted samples regained almost all engineering properties on complete bioremediation of the polluted sample. Meanwhile, the rate at which the bioremediation takes place highly depends on the nature of the pollution. In this case, the rate of bioremediation of diesel-polluted sample is higher than that of the engine oil-polluted sample under the same condition.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Research.

1.1.1. Bioremediation Concept:

Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganism or their enzymes to reform the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. Bioremediation may be employed in order to attack specific contaminants, such as oil spills that are broken down using multiple techniques including the addition of fertilizer to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by bacteria. Such treatment will go a long way to improving the engineering properties of such soil and enhance its suitability.
Generally, bioremediation technologies can be classified as insitu or exsitu. Insitu bioremediation involves treating the contaminated material at the site while exsitu involves the removal of the contaminated material to be treated elsewhere.
Often, bioremediation can be accomplished without human intervention by microorganisms that are naturally found in the contaminated matrix. For this approach to be used, it is usually necessary for the rate of contaminant degradation to exceed the rate of contaminant migration. This is called intrinsic bioremediation.
In some cases, it may be desirable to construct engineered systems to supply nutrients, electron acceptors, or other materials that enhance the rate or extent of contaminant degradation. This is desirable when the rate of contaminant migration, the location of environmental receptors or other liability issues dictate that steps to be taken to optimize the rate of contaminant degradation in order to mitigate contaminant migration.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF BIOREMEDIATION ON THE COMPACTION PARAMETERS, CBR, AND PERMEABILITY OF OIL POLLUTED SOIL

 

1.1.2. Engineering Properties of Soil

Soil materials are a critical component of engineering design within the construction of buildings and roads. The mechanical aspect of soil in terms of how it moves when subjected to certain conditions derives from the physical and chemical properties of a particular soil type. Understanding different soil compositions, their respective strengths and structural make ups enables engineers to treat soil as a construction material.
These engineering properties, some of which are discussed below play vital role in the determination of the suitability of a particular soil sample, for a particular purpose.

1.1.2.1. Compaction:

compaction means pressing the soil particles close to each other by mechanical methods. During compaction, air is expelled from the void space in the soil mass and, therefore, the mass density is increased. Compaction of a soil mass is done to improve the engineering properties. Compaction generally increases the shear strength of the soil, and hence the stability and bearing capacity. It also plays a vital role in reducing the compressibility and permeability of the soil.

1.1.2.2. California Bearing Ratio:

The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test is a type of test developed by the California division of highway in 1929.The test is used in evaluating the suitability of sub-grade and the materials used in sub- base and base courses. The test results have been correlated with the thickness of the various materials required for flexible pavements.
The (CBR) test is a penetration resistance test used extensively in highway design methods. It is a standardized and popular design parameter for highway and air field pavements.

1.1.2.3. Permeability:

The property of a soil which permits flow of water or any liquid through it is called the permeability. In order words, the permeability of soil is the ease with which water can flow through it. A soil sample is highly porous when water can flow through it easily and as such the permeability of such soil sample is said to be high .In an impervious soil, the permeability is very low and water cannot easily flow through it .
Permeability is a very important engineering property of soil. Knowledge of permeability is very essential in a number of soil engineering problems, such as settlement of buildings, yield of wells, seepage through and below the earth structures. It controls the hydraulic stability of soil masses. The knowledge of the permeability of soil is also required in the design of filters used to prevent piping in hydraulic structures.

1.2. Objectives of the Study

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF BIOREMEDIATION ON THE COMPACTION PARAMETERS, CBR, AND PERMEABILITY OF OIL POLLUTED SOIL

 

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