EFFECT OF FRACTION I OF Abrusprecatorius SEED METHANOL EXTRACTON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS
The aim of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effects of an alkaloid-rich fraction of Abrusprecatorius seedchloroform-methanol extract on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The percentage yield of the methanol extract of Abrusprecatorius seeds was found to be 2.08% w/w. Further purification of the extract using Sephadex gel G15 to get a purer sample was done. The fractions were spotted on a TLC plate and was spread with
Drangendoff’s reagent in which some fractions turned purple indicating the presence of alkaloids. The fractions that turned purple were pulled into a beaker and called fraction I which gave a percentage yield of17.75% and was used in this study. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of fraction I revealed a wide range of phytochemicals such asalkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins and carbohydrates, steroids, terpenoids, and peptides which could be physiologically potent in ameliorating several diseases.
The quantitative phytochemical analysis of fraction I of Abrusprecatoriusseed methanol extract showed the presence of alkaloids (5480 ± 184 mg/100g), flavonoids (215 ± 97 mg/100g), saponins (2.98 ± 1.33 mg/100g) and tannins (6.4 ± 0.72 mg/100g). Hepatotoxicity was induced using paracetamol (2500 mg/kg b.w.) orally. For prophylactic treatment (hepato-protective), administration of extract was done for 7 days before paracetamol induction and collection of blood was done after 24 hours of administration. Curative treatment (hepato-curative) was done after paracetamol induction at day 0 and treatment was done for 14 days. Blood was collected on days 8 and 15 for the analyses.Prophylactic and curative treatments with fraction I of Abrusprecatorius methanol
extract at the dose of 100 and 200mg/kg b.w for group 4 and 5 produced a significant decrease (p0.05) in the activities of the liver marker enzymes (ALP, AST, ALT) and bilirubin levels in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared to the paracetamol untreated group 2 (positive control).Groups 3, 4, and 5 treated with 100 mg/kg b.w.silymarin (standard hepato-protective and curative drug),100mg/k.g. b.w. of fraction I and 200mg/k.g. b.w. of fraction I respectively before and after paracetamol induction caused a significant decrease (p0.05) in the serum urea and creatinine concentrations of both hepato-protective and hepato-curative groups compared to the positive control. Serum electrolyte concentrations showed a significant increase (p0.05) in
the treated groups of both hepato-protective and curative when compared to the positive control.
The MDA concentration decreased significantly (p0.05) in the treated groups and standard groups compared to the positive control after 24 hours (hepato-protective)and at day 8 and 15 (hepato-curative). Serum SOD activity of both protective and curative models, showed adose- and time-dependent significant increase (p0.05) in the treated groups compared to the positive control.The haematological parameters of the rats treated with fraction I of Abrusprecatorius methanol extract at various doses showed a significant increase (p0.05) in the PCV levels, Hb concentration and RBC count compared to the positive control. A dose- and time-dependent significant decrease (p0.05) was observed in the WBC count of all treated groups (hepato-protective and hepato-curative) compared to the positive control. The test groups that received fraction I of Abrusprecatoriusin both models showed a dose- and time-dependent effects on the biochemical markers used in the study similar to the standard drug. However,fraction I had more curative effect than protective but silymarinwas more potent.
EFFECT OFFRACTION I OF Abrusprecatorius SEED METHANOL EXTRACTON PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS
Plants, the first medicine of human being, have played a remarkable role in health care since the ancient times. Traditionally plant-based medicines still exert a great deal of importance to the people living in developing countries and also lead to the discovery of new drugs for a variety of diseases that threatens human health. Plants are the rich sources of organic compounds, many of which have been used for medicinal purposes. Medicinal plants are the plants whose parts (leaves, seeds, stems, roots, fruits, foliage etc), extracts, infusions, decoctions or powders are used in the treatment of different diseases of humans, plants and animals (Nweze et al., 2004). There is a wide spectrum of trees, plants and shrubs whose seeds, roots, barks and leaves are used by humans throughout the globe due to their nutritional or medicinal value (Doughari et al., 2009). The importance of herbs in the management of human ailments cannot be over emphasized. Herbs play a major role in the management of various liver disorders along with other system associated diseases (Ebenyi et al., 2012).
Medicinal plants such as Aloe vera,Eclipta alba, Phyllanthus niruri, Solanum Indicum, Maytenus emerginata and Aegle mameloes are well known for their hepato-protective effects (Parmar et al., 2010). Abrus precatoriusLinn is a leguminous plant of the Fabaceae family. Its seeds, roots and leaves are widely used for medicinal purposes in Africa and Asia (Yadava and Reddy, 2002). In Nigeria, the Igbos use the aqueous decoction of the seeds to treat a wide range of conditions including ulcer, infections, hypertension, diarrhoea, infarct and ogbanje (Nwodo and Alumanah, 1991).
1.1.General Description of Abrus precatorius Linn
Abrus precatorius, which belongs to the family of fabeceae is a plant that originated from Southeast Asia and now can be found in subtropical climate areas such as India, Sri Laka, Thailand, the Philippine Islands, South China, Tropical Africa and the West Indies (Vavaprasad and Varahalarao, 2009). It is a slender, perennial climber that twines around trees, shrubs, and hedges. The leaves are pinnate and glabrous, with many leaflets (12 or more) arranged in pairs. Flowers are small and pale violet in colour with a short stalk, arranged in clusters. The plant is best known for its seeds, which are used as beads and in percussion instruments, and which are toxic due to the presence of abrin. The plant is native to Indonesia and grows in tropical and subtropical areas of the world where it has been introduced. It has a tendency to become weedy and invasive where it has been introduced.
1.1.1 An Overview ofAbrus precatorius Seed
The name Abrus, meaning beautiful or graceful, used to describe the appearance of the seed. The seed is found in a variety of colours such as black, brown, white and most commonly, red with a glossy appearance with the black band at the end that attaches to the plant. The Abrus precatorius seed is known by a variety of names that include jequirity (India), Crab’s eye (Guam), Rosary pea (Egypt), Precatory peabean(USA), Indian Liquorice (Nigeria) and Giddee Giddee or Jumbie bead in Trinidad and Tobago (Hartley, 2010). The seeds of Abrus precatorius are much valued in native jewery for their bright coloration. Most beans are black and red, suggesting a ladybug, though other colors are available. The Tamils use Abrus seeds of different colors. The red variety with black eye is the most common, but there are black, white and green varieties as well. The seeds of Abrus precatorius are very consistent in weight. Formerly Indians used these seeds to weigh gold using a measure called a Ratti, where 8 Ratti = 1 Masha; 12 Masha = 1 Tola (11.6 Grams) (Hartley, 2010).
EFFECT OF FRACTION I OF Abrusprecatorius SEED METHANOL EXTRACTION PARACETAMOL-INDUCED LIVER DAMAGE IN RATS