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PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

For one to understand the lives of children who live and work on the street, we need to find out about the lives and roles of children in any culture. There are certain African realities that affect children in the continent irrespective of their cultural, geographical or socio-economic status. In the first place, children and young people are more than half the population of most African countries and there is a general lack of provision of child care for working mothers which are likely to be the significant causes of street hawking among children.

Children in the urban areas are quickly caught up in the daily struggle for survival and material gain (Ebigbo 1986). A situation analysis of child neglect and abuse in Nigeria undertaken through the medium of news papers found that child abandonment, sexual abuse, child neglect, kidnapping and hawking were the most reported form of child abuse and neglect (Ebigbo, 1989). However, one of the basic principles of international convention on the Rights of the child is that every child must be protected against all forms of exploitation.

Indecent or degrading treatments, including child labour, abduction and sale (UNICEF 2000). According to UNICEF, exploiting the labour of a child means employing a person below the age fifteen years and paying him/her the minimum standard wage. Trafficked children are made to work as hawkers, petty traders, beggers, farm hands, bus conductors to mention but few (UNICEF, 1997). The problem of child hawking is pervasive in nature, the western societies sees child labourers as people who are suffering from one psychological or pathological problem, while in the African society it is regarded as a natural procedure in child rearing process.

Child labour has been considered a social problem in the African context and Nigeria in particular (UNICEF, 1997) According to Ebigbo and Abaga (1990) the rate of child abuse and street hawking has assumed a worrisome and alarming proportion.Hence, this study will try to discuss the determinant factors and effects of street hawking among children in Abakaliki.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

1.2 Statement of the Problem

The main problem that appeals to the interest of the study stems from the negative effects of street hawking among children. To improve the academic performance of school children, they are expected to revise their notes, to their home work and prepare for the next day. However, the children instead engage in income generating activities such as hawking of goods after and sometimes during the school hours to contribute to family income and carter for themselves by this attitudes children have their attention divided. It is on this platform that the study investigates the effect of street hawking among children in Ebonyi State. This is for the purpose of ascertaining the social, moral and economic effects of street hawking among children in Ebonyi State.

In the high of this study, the researcher will try to explore with empirical evidence the positive and negative effect of street hawking among children in Ebonyi State.

1.3 Research Questions

       This work is aimed at answering the following research questions.

(1)  What are the remote and immediate causes of street hawking among children?

(2) What are the effects or implications of child street hawking?

(3) What are the possible measures that can be taken to curb child street hawking?

1.4 Objectives of Study

Although the general objective is to examine the effect of street hawking among children in Ebonyi State (A case study of Abakaliki Local Government Area), the underlisted are the specific objectives of the study;

(1)  To identify the remote and immediate causes of child street hawking.

(2) To ascertain the implications of street hawking among children.

(3) To identify measures that can be taken to curb street hawking among children in Abakaliki.

1.5 Significance of the Study

(a) Theoretical Significance

This study is expected to enable government and non-governmental organizations to formulate polices on how to abolish street hawking among children.

The work will serve as an instrument of englightenment to parents about the need to protect the future of children by not engaging in street hawking.

The study will also add to existing knowledge in the field of academics and increase the volume of literature in child street hawking.

(b) Practical Significance

The findings of this research will also contribute to;

The children; by knowing the implication of street hawking on their academic performance, character and social life.

1.6 Scope of the Study

This study in its widest range focuses on the effects of street hawking among children. The researcher will be unable to observe the Nigerian Society at large but narrowed the work to Abakaliki Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. Children in this part of the world are caught up with the daily struggle for survival.

This study therefore, is interested in stressing out the attendant problems  associated  with the effects of street hawking among children in Ebonyi State especially Abakaliki.

1.7 Definition of Terms

For the purpose of clarification it will be ideal to conceptualize the definition of key words that will be used in this study.

Keywords:  Abakaliki, child labour, children hawking, parents and street.

Abakaliki: This is a Local Government Area found in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. It is also the capital city of Ebonyi State.

Child labour:  This is  often defined as work that deprives children of their  childhood,  their potentials and their dignity and that is harmful to physical and  mental developmentally, physically, socially and morally harmful to children.

Children: In this work children refers to persons or young people who are below the age of 15 years.

Hawking:  This term means to sell goods on the street and to attract attention by calling out. It is to carry about and offer goods for sale typically advertising them by shouting.

Parents: This refers to the persons from whom one is biologically descended; mother or father, it can also mean a person who acts as parent in rearing a child, for instance, an adoptive parent, a step parent or relative

Street: a street is simply a paved part it the road usually in a village or town.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECT OF STREET HAWKING AMONG CHILDREN IN EBONYI STATE (A CASE STUDY OF ABAKALIKI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)

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