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PROJECT TOPIC – EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS OF CYPHOSTEMMA GLAUCOPHILLA (AN ANTI KWASHIORKOR PLANT) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF KWASHIORKOR

EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS OF CYPHOSTEMMA GLAUCOPHILLA (AN ANTI KWASHIORKOR PLANT) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF KWASHIORKOR

 

ABSTRACT

The chloroform, ethanol and water extracts of pulverized dried leaves of Cyphostemma glaucophilla were used in this investigation. The LD50 of each of the extracts was determined using mice by the method of Lorke (1968). Each of the three sets of twentyfive Wistar albino rats of either sex (130-160g) were randomly assigned to five experimental groups of five animals each. The rats were fed on mouse feed and allowed water ad libitum for 14 days. For each of the three extracts, five groups, A,B,C, D, and E of five animals per group were served single intraperitoneal (ip) daily doses of 0.1ml normal saline (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0mg/kg of the extract respectively for 14 days. The body weights were measured immediately at the first administration, that is on day 1.
At the end of the day 14, their body weights, the weights of the liver, heart and kidney were also measured. The concentrations of plasma proteins, Hb, cholesterol, HDL, LDL and TGs were determined. The activities of AST, ALT and ALP were assayed. The packed cell volume (PCV) was measured. The effect of the extract on protein synthesis was also determined.

Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and students independent t-test and presented as means ± standard error of mean and values with p < 0.05 were
regarded as significant. Up to 1000 mg/kg body weight, the extracts did not produce any observable sign of toxicity. The concentrations of plasma proteins, PCV, Hb, HDL, significantly increased while the total cholesterol, LDL, TG concentrations significantly decreased compared with those of the control. There were no significant (p>0.05) effects on the activities of AST, ALT and ALP in the test groups compared with those of the control. There were also no significant changes in the organ weights. Inhibition of extract induced increase in amounts of liver protein, shows that it enhanced protein synthesis at
termination stage. All the effects were concentration dependent. The order of potency of the extracts were water extract > ethanol extract > chloroform extract and the differences among their effects were significant.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The genus cyphostemma belongs to the family of vitacea which consists of a wide range of creeping plants with broadly ovate leaves and stem. They have greenish tinge and are produced as berries of varying sizes. They originated from Africa and Madagascar, even though various species now occur in different parts of the world. While Cyphostemma quandragularis is found in India, Cyphostemma adnata and Cyphostemma pallida are found in Asia. Cyphostemma glaucophilla and Cyphostemma populnea are found in parts of Nigeria in West Africa. These species serve many medicinal purposes (Lynn, 2004).Cyphostemma glaucophilla is a useful medicinal plant. It is a slightly fleshy climber with creamy-green flowers and ultimate branching of inflorescence cyanose. It has unexpanded corolla, subglobose leaflet, sharply apiculate at apex, commonly found by streams and rivers. It is a perennial herb with prostate branches from the node and can be found in such places as Togo, Nigeria, Sudan, East Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola (Bukik, 1985).

The leaf extract is used locally in the treatment of kwashiorkor and marasmus in children. Also, the ground leaf paste is used by local orthopaedics in setting of fractured and dislocated bones. The seed extract is also used as a local dye. Yorubas use it traditionally in treating female infertility, stomach upset and inflammation. The blended leaves are also used with honey in the treatment of cough. However, the Ebiras of Kogi State of Nigeria use the leaves, flowers and stem as an internal cleanser for new born by feeding the child with the water extract. The young shoots are also used as vegetables.

1.2 OTHER MEMBERS OF THE GENUS CYPHOSTEMMA

1.2.1 CYPHOSTEMMA QUANDRAGULARIS:

Cyphostemma quandragularis is a medicinal plant of Indian origin. It is a climbing herb with simple tendrils opposite to the leaves. The leaves are either simple or lobbed, sometimes 3-foliate and has fleshy berries, flowering and fruiting from May – June (Gupta and Verna, 1991). The use of this plant by the common folk for promoting fracture healing process is an old practice. It has been prescribed in ancient Ayuruedic test by Bhava Prakash and
Chakra Dutta as a general tonic especially for the fractured bone. Since then it has been in extensive use by bone setters both for external application and as medicine to be taken with milk. The stem is also reported in Ayurveda as alternative antihelmintic, dyspectic, disgestive tonic, in the treatment of irregular menstruation and asthma. Scientific studies have also revealed the leaf extract to posses cardiotonic and androgenic properties (Siaza and Houngnon, 2005). Studies carried out by Gupta and Verma (1991) show that Cyphostemma quandragularis contains large quantities of vitamin C, carotene A, anabolic steroidal substances and calcium.

This anabolic steroidal principle markedly influenced the rate of fracture healing by influencing early regeneration of all connective tissues of mesenchymal origin, namely the fibroblast, chondroblast and osteoblast involved in the healing and quicker mineralisation of the callus. The stem extract causes less amount of tissue reaction in the fractured region leading to optimum decalcification in the early stage with minimum callus formation. Hence deposition of calcium is just enough to join the two broken segments of a bone so that its remodeling phenomenon leads to early recovery of treated animals. It is also
shown to cause early gain in the tensile strength of fractured bones of about ninety percent of its normal strength at the end of six weeks. The extract builds up the chemical composition of the fractured bone namely mucopolysaccharides, collagen, calcium, phosphorus and others as well as its functional efficiency.

It is on record that the extract neutralises the antianabolic effect of steroids like cortisone in healing of fractures. This includes inhibition of tissue regeneration and repair, also retarding formation of the specific skeletal structures such that even if the cartilage is produced, its maturation and ultimate bone replacement do not take place in the normal pattern. Its main inhibitory action is on fibroblast and mast cells which produce mucopolysaccharides of connective tissues. The chemical constituent of stem isolate include 3-ketosteroids, onocer-7-en-3, 21-diol and onecer-7-en-3, 21-diol (Gupta and Verma, 1991).

 

EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS OF CYPHOSTEMMA GLAUCOPHILLA (AN ANTI KWASHIORKOR PLANT) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF KWASHIORKOR

 

1.2.2. CYPHOSTEMMA POPULNEA

It is reputed as a diuretic. The phytochemical examination of the extract showed the presence of anthraquinone, steroidal glycosides and cardiac glycosides, tannins and alkaloids were completely absent in the extract (Saiza and Houngnon, 2005). The anti-sickling asctivities of the root extract of the plant (a major constituent of the herbal formular, Ajawaron HF, used in the management of sickle cell disease in south west Nigeria) has been examined.
Evaluation of the anti-sickling activity involves the use of both positive (phydroxy benzoic acid) and negative control (normal saline) for each set of  experiment aimed at the inhibition of sodium meta bisulphate – induced sickling of the HbSS red blood cells obtained from confirmed non-crisis state sickle cell patient. The chloroform and water partitioned fraction of the cold methanol extract exhibited a 62.2% and 52.9% inhibition of sickling respectively at 180 min. The herbal formular (HF) aqueous extract showed the highest anti-sickling activity on a weight basis of all the 180 min incubation when compared with the control. The maximum percentage inhibition of sickling exhibited by the p-hydroxy benzoic acid control was 46% after 90 min of incubation (Moody et al, 2003).

1.2.3 CYPHOSTEMMA SICYOIDES:

A tropical plant, widely used in Brazillian ethno-medicine to treat diabetics mellitus. In Mexico, the aqueous extract of the plant is used in traditional medicine for the relief of pain and inflammation. Anthocyanins present in the fruit may have potential as a food colourant (Toledo et al, 1983). Garcia et al, (1999) recorded that aqueous extracts of the leaves showed vaso-constrictor effect on guinea pig aortic strip.

 

1.2.4 CYPHOSTEMMA RHEIFOLIA

The leaf extract of Cyphostemma rheifolia contains quinolizidine alkaloids,flavonoids, terpenoids and allenic ketone (Saifa et al, 1983).

1.2.5 CYPHOSTEMMA PALLIDA

The stem wood of Cyphostemma pallida showed presence of stilbene,
triterpenoids and steroids (Khan et al, 1986).

 

EFFECTS OF EXTRACTS OF CYPHOSTEMMA GLAUCOPHILLA (AN ANTI KWASHIORKOR PLANT) ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES OF KWASHIORKOR

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