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PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) EXTRACTS CONCENTRATIONS ON QUALITY OF STORED SOYMILK

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) EXTRACTS CONCENTRATIONS ON QUALITY OF STORED SOYMILK

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Soybean (Glycine max) is the world’s foremost provider of protein and oil. It is rich in protein, highly available and used to boost our nutritional status. (Britzman,2009).Soybean seeds contain by weight approximately 35% carbohydrates,12% dietary fibre, 19%oil, 5% mineral, 36% protein and 5% vitamins (Ajay, et al.,2011). Soybean oil is rich in polysaturated fatty acids and contains 52.3%, and 7.29% of Linoleic and Linolenic acid respectively.

It could also be used to decrease the rate of cardiac and blood vessel diseases in human beings due to the presence of essential fatty acids which reduce blood cholesterol (Dickinson, 2002). Exposure to the nutritional values of soybean has led to increase in demand for soy based products such as soymilk, soy cheese, soy-ogi, soy flour, soymilk infant formula, tempeh, and sweetened tofu.

Affordability of soybean products makes it a good substitute against meat and fish based products which is available to the common man. Soymilk is a high protein, iron rich milky liquid produced from pressing wet milled soybeans. Due to its creamy nature, it resembles cow milk in physical appearance and composition (Ilkay et al., 2007), though differs from it in a number of ways. Soymilk does not contain lactose, rather contains higher percentages of protein than cow milk .

The increasing popularity of soymilk as a beverage worldwide is credited to its health benefits, low cholesterol and lactose, its ability to reduce bone loss and menopausal symptoms, prevention and reduction of heart diseases and certain cancers (Anonye, 2010).Soymilk is generally regarded as “imitation milk” since it serves as an alternative way of producing an acceptable nutritious complete food of plant origin.

Spices are condiments used in flavoring foods and also have anti-microbial properties which are concentration dependent (Kabiru, (2012). The preservative effect of these spices is due to their chemical compositions especially oil fraction which are inhibitory to microbial growth (Adedeji, 2013). Research has shown that many spices have potent antimicrobial properties (Adedeji and Adeomowaye 2013).

Of interest is the antibacterial property of spices since bacteria are more commonly incriminated in food borne disease outbreak than yeast and fungi. Garlic, onions, all spices and oregano were found to be the most potent spices for they inhibited or killed every bacterium they were tested on (Shahedur, 2011, Ojo, 2007). Odom et al., (2012) reported on the antimicrobial properties of ginger and black pepper extracts of different concentration on microbial quality of soymilk and kunuzaki.

He observed that there was a linear reduction in the bacterial load with increase in concentration of spice. Garlic has shown anti-viral, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-oxidant abilities due to its sulfur containing compounds, high trace mineral content and enzymes. (Bongiorno et al., 2008). Literatures show that garlic could help to prevent the following diseases: Alzheimer disease, cancer, cardiovascular diseases including artherosclerosis, strokes, hypertension, thrombosis and hyperlipidemias, s dermatologic applications, stress and infection.

Other research point to its possible benefit in diabetes, drug toxicity and osteoporosis. (Bongiorno et. al., 2008). Considering the tremendous health and nutritional properties of soymilk in terms of carbohydrate composition, protein, fat and vitamins ,antimicrobial and health potentials in garlic,   continuous availability of soybeans and garlic both as local agricultural produce, it becomes pertinent that all groups of the population,   infants, young and the aged should benefit through consumption of soymilk preserved with garlic since both have the capacity to improve our nutritional status at a relatively fair cost when compared to other protein sources and artificial preservatives. It is particularly important for lactose intolerant people, children and adults or those suffering from galactosemia since soymilk does not contain lactose sugars that pose serious health problems to these groups of people.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) EXTRACTS CONCENTRATIONS ON QUALITY OF STORED SOYMILK

1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Spices such as garlic could be used as effective antibiotics and antioxidant to prolong the shelf life of soymilk is demonstrated in some research works by Odum et.al,(2012) and Ojo et.al,(2007). In these respective works, it was clearly demonstrated that spices could be used to prolong the shelf life of foods. However, apart from the fact that spices could be used to prolong the shelf life of foods, there is need to ascertain the level of biochemical changes that occur during storage ,evaluate the level of acceptability of stored soymilk and the degree of microbial safety of stored soymilk.

1.2 RESEARCH JUSTIFICATION.

Soy milk cannot be safely stored under ambient temperature for quite a long time. Consumers are equally becoming health conscious on the use of chemical preservatives in foods. Stanojevic et al, (2009) reported that sodium benzoate damaged the mitochondrial DNA of yeast cells and may do the same to human DNA. Hence the use of garlic a biological materials as natural preservatives to inhibit and retard the growth of microorganisms is being investigated.

The advantages of natural preservatives over synthetic preservatives are that they are more affordable, available and present no detrimental effect to both the body systems and surroundings (Dweck, 2002). This property if properly harnessed, with   regards to concentration limits that could impact antimicrobial activity without adversely affecting the organoleptic quality of soymilk is of great significance to the community.

Hence,   the objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of varying concentrations of extracts of garlic on nutrient composition, organoleptic attributes and microbial load   of   stored soymilk at room temperature. This would be of benefit to the rural communities where electricity may not be available for refrigeration of processed soymilk.

1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES INCLUDE

  1. To determine changes in chemical composition of treated stored soymilk.
  2. Evaluate changes in microbial load of soymilk samples stored.

To determine changes in sensory properties of stored soymilk.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF GARLIC (Allium sativum) EXTRACTS CONCENTRATIONS ON QUALITY OF STORED SOYMILK

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