PROJECT TOPIC – EFFECTS OF GENDER PREFERENCE ON EMPLOYMENT DECISION A STUDY OF SELECTED BANKS IN EBONYI STATE NIGERIA
Equal employment opportunities, has become a general principle guiding big international organization as away of ensuring justice, equality and fair play in their recruitment of new employee. However, this principles show that female gender are not really discriminated against in employment in banking industries in Ebonyi State (Abakaliki) women actually out number men based on the sample sizes used out of 200 respondents, women constituted (60%) sixty percentage of the sample size, while men were (4%) forty percent though it can be said that women are employed in the bank not because of their gender but because be their educational qualification; but these female employees are employed to certain section of the bank which suit women more, because of gender or their biological make up.
A number of reasons have been adopted by scholars as reason for. This state of affairs greater handicap than other factors like education, experience, skill etc. This is some of the issue the researcher dealt with in going about the findings. Five banking industries were selected in Ebonyi State and they are as follows: First bank Plc, Diamond bank, Union bank Intercontinental bank and Guaranty trust bank Plc.
In conducting this research, a sample size of 286 workers was chosen from these banks. Questionnaires and interview schedule were the major instrument of data collection. Sample percentage were used in the computation and analysis the findings which shows that women are not really discriminated against in employment in banking industries in Ebonyi State because of their gender but the discrimination against them comes up when they are being employed into certain sections of the bank, in this case their gender becomes an issue instead of their educational qualification.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The issue of gender is a phenomenon which has extended a serious debate in relating to assigning social roles to human societies. Gender is concerned with the psychological, social and cultural differences between males and female. In addition to different psychological characteristics, male and females have distinctive physical traits characteristics and personalities
However, researchers recognizes that the contents behavior of individuals is a consequences of both socially enforced rules and values and individual disposition, whether genetic, unconscious or conscious. Some researchers emphasizes the objective social system and others emphasizes subjective orientations and dispositions.
Creativity may cause the rules and values changes over time, cultures and societies are dynamic and ever changing but there has been extensive debate as to how, and how fast, they may change. Such debates are especially contentions when they involve the gender/ sex system as people have widely differing views about how much gender depends on biological sex.
Early in life, a person acquires a gender identity, and once a child has gender identity, he or she begins to assemble gender roles in masculine and feminine tracts not only are different but are valued, differently and masculine traits usually rates higher the normality of femininity stresses delicacy dependency, emotionality nurturance and verbal skill, and that of masculinity borders on toughness, aggressiveness independence rationality strength competitiveness a desire for achievement and skill at mathematics.
Due to this type of inferred differences between the male and the female gender, society tends as to assign the more challenging tasks (also more rewarding) to men and more suitable or less demanding task to women. According to (komarousky 1946) culture norms intelligent men make their marks in the society while intelligent women make good wives through traditional attitude that women’s place is in the kitchen or home means that most sectors of national life are exclusively for men and there is a serious in balance in the development of manpower until recently paid work outside the home has been done mostly by men, but the in-balance is changing as more women entered the job market still more is not the same as more equal.” According to (Sectrick 1991) view that women have more than their expected to do house work.
Most women and men work at different kinds of establishment and in different industries men out number women are more numerous in clerical and paid domestic work.
PROJECT TOPIC : EFFECTS OF GENDER PREFERENCE ON EMPLOYMENT DECISION. A STUDY OF SELECTED BANKS IN EBONYI STATE NIGERIA.
During the nineteen and early twentieth century banking was a male occupation and all bank tellers were men as the banking sector expands more responsible position were created and the state of the tellers which men occupied declined women filled the position vacated by men and today many bank tellers are women.
With particular reference to banking industries in Ebonyi State, the researcher intends to find out the role of sex/gender in employing staff in banks. This in the course of this research, attempts will be made to ascertain whether employment in banking industries in Ebonyi State is based strictly on merit or by gender preferences.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
The problem of this study therefore is that the prevailing cause of gender preferences and employment opportunity in most of our banking industries had been rooted from biological make up of sex educational training, experience and skill acquisition in the banking affair but today, the situation has changed that banks are not only employing university graduates on a full-time, but also engage greater number of women as senior and management staff.
However, a new trend appears to be taking place in all the banks especially the new generation bank, it appeared as if preference is given to men in particular banks and in a particular section of the bank while women are also given preference in other sections.
A recent survey by united Nation Development programme (UNSP), showed that 472 financial establishment in 48 local government area in Nigeria with over 40% female employees are less than a quarter.
According to (Yinka 2001) emphasized that only one in five financial institution had ever been headed by a female.
This ugly situation or stigmatization has brought us with a lot of bias in area of gender equality among the banking section when it comes to employment opportunity or job promotion. It is on such phenomenon that this work intends to explore the problem of gender bias employment policies in some selected banking industries in Ebonyi State.
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
This research is based on gender preference and employment opportunities in the banking industries in Ebonyi State. This work centers on the employment policy of the
banking industries in Ebonyi State whether it is gender based or not the issue is that both male and female staff should vary in age and position held in the bank
1.4 AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
This research has both general and specific objectives. Especially items at finding out the following:
- To what extent are vacancies in banking industries in Ebonyi State filled up on the basis of the sex of the applicant.
- At understanding why men are more preferred in certain jobs than women.
- At understanding the policies that uniform recruitment in the banks in Ebonyi State.
- To find out the factors that influences the employment of a given employee to a sector of the bank in Ebonyi State.
- To find out if certain jobs in the banks in Ebonyi State suited women more than men. .
- To understand if there are jobs that are specifically reserved for men.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
This study has two (2) importance which respectively it focus on:
- Theoretical perspective
- Practical perspective
Theoretically, the study is significant in the sense that it will serve as reference. It will expose its effect on gender discrimination.
Its practical significance is based on the fact that since the growth of any organization lies to a large extent on the efficiency of its personnel. The study will assist employers in making appropriate choice in employing staffs. This study will also help parents and guidance to counsel their children’s on the appropriate course of study so as not to be face with the problem of unemployment.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In carrying out this research work, the following questions are put forward to guide the study.
- What are the policies that uniforms recruitment in the banking industries in Nigeria.
- What are the factor that influences the employment of a given employee to a section of the bank in Ebonyi State.
- Are there certain sections in the banks that suite women?
- Are there sections that are specifically reserved for men in banks?
- Why are men preferred in certain sections than woman in banking industries?
- What can be done to ensure gender balance in employment not only in banking industries but in other sections of the economy?
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
The vagueness of concept constitution obstacles to clearly identify and observe problems under investigation in a research work. This fact will help the researcher to clearly present the clear definition of the relevant concepts in the way of study that findings, inter-proportions, and conclusion that comes from the study would be clearly understood in their correct context.
- GENDER: This refers to an individual’s psychological type, it is acquired through experience. It refers to whether an individual is masculine or feminine.
- GENDER ROLE: Refers to the attitudes and behaviour that class a person in stereotypical identify e.g women cook and clean, men fix cars.
- GENDER IDENTIFY: Is how one perceives themselves as either masculine or feminine.
- CULTURAL NORMS: This means the total body of tradition borne by a society and transmitted from generation to generation. It thus refers to the norms, value, standards by which people act and it includes the ways distinctive in each society of ordering the world and rending it intelligible.
- SEX: This is a state of being either male or female.
- GENDER PREFERENCE: It is a kind of treatment which is given to a person or group of people because they are categorized as male or female.
- NEW GENERATION BANKS: These are new established banks that came up in the last seven eight years, offering competitive banking services without the security and reliability of long standing banks example are Zenith Bank, Diamond Bank PLC etc.
Hi. One’s educational qualification is more considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one’s gender.
Ho. One’s educational qualification is not considered in employment in the banking sector rather than one’s gender.
Hi. Some sections in the bank require a particular gender than the others.
Ho. Some sections in the bank do not require a particular gender than the others.