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This study was a quasi, – experimental research designed to investigate the effects of songs on pupils achievement and retention in some primary school mathematics. The study also sought to find out if any particular gender benefits more in learning through the use of songs. Specifically, the study was a non- equivalent control group design. Fourresearch questions and three hypotheses were used as a guide in the study. The population for the study comprised all the 1,084 pupils in the
senior primary classes of primary schools in Suru-lere local government area of Lagos State. Forty pupils were used for the study. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was use to test the null hypothesis ,at the 0.05 level of significance.
The result of the study revealed, among others, that songs can be composed for the teaching and learning of primary school mathematics, and the mean performance of pupils taught with songs was significantly higher than that of those taught without songs in both the achievement and retention test.
Based on the result of the study, it was recommended among others, that the federal and state ministries of education, and professional association should organize workshops for primary school teachers use of songs in teaching primary school mathematics.



Background of the Study

No one knows what the future will bring in mathematics education. The only thing certain is that the discipline will continue to change. It should be recognized that the discipline of mathematics education is only an infant. Most mathematics educators suggested that the real revolution lies a head. Each mathematics educators has special interest and strong
feelings about forthcoming changes.

All mathematics users and mathematicians must make every effort to know the present status and trends of our discipline and make worthwhile contributions for the future because no nation can hope to achieve any measure of scientific or technological advancement without proper foundation in school level. But unfortunately mathematics is one of the most poorly taught, widely haled and abysmally understood subject in Nigeria schools.
Every individual in the world is aware of the benefits derived from mathematics which makes it a core subject at both primary and secondary school levels even in the post secondary level. Some think that mathematics is isolated from their everyday activities and problems. But mathematics is a service course for every activities of life, to pure and applied science, politics, music, economics, agricultural science etc.

Both pupils and teachers should recall at any point in time during mathematics lesson and beyond that when students leave school, they are likely to take up careers which require basic numeracy and or specialized techniques in mathematics.
A mathematics teacher can x- ray the application of mathematics concept in varied fields of life and activities as a good instrument to ‘be used in generating and sustaining students interest and retention in mathematics.

One of the major weaknesses associated with learning of mathematics is their lack of interest in the subject (Ali 1982). This contributed more than anything else to their poor achievement in mathematics as observed by Oloyede (1984). This increasing wane of interest is culminating into real hatred of mathematics.
Some authors have blamed pupils’ poor performance and lack of interest on the methods of teaching mathematics, which according to them are dull, and unrelated to the life and interest of the pupils. So many students easily forget formula and rules when they leave their present classes1 session due to poor presentation or use of learning1 teaching activities.

To correct this error, Debyster (1979) pointed out that since the early stage’ of learning mathematics is largely concerned with acquisition of skills, a process which involves repetition, strategies and drill at frequent intervals are necessary and pupil should practice it everyday to enhance retention. This project work presents an ideal about what the future holds for mathematics.

Rivers in Oforma (1991) wrote that songs were very important to pupils in primary school level because it help them to incorporate the sense of reality into the classes. He stated that it must not be used in a class merely as a kind of end- of – class relaxation.
Mackey (1978) emphasized that songs help to capture the spirit of learning. Also to carter for individual differences, different songs could mean to have different effects on the pupils (probably gender wise) during the teaching and learning situation. The research composes different songs from different topics of primary school mathematics, which will be introduced into our primary school system, bearing in rnind that they could have some effects on the pupil’s performance and retention with respect to gender.
Asiegbo (1989) stated that songs are the main tool used to capture the attention of the children and forms the background of most of their activities.
Mathematics concepts1 formulas and rules can be developed and accompanied by songs at the primary school levc4. Children enjoy songs, concentrated and could learn more effectively when songs are used as tool for teaching. It is also through these learning that children discover concept, relationship, learn to observe, compare, communicate orally and
gradually construct in a practical way logical connections.
Some teachers see songs as an exercise used to quieten the children while making noise, some use it for recreation or as a mere singing exercise probably towards the end of the school day. This is a narrow and brief over- view of what song can do in mathematics and entire education of the total child. Since our schools lack some audiovisual, oral and other types of teaching aids in mathematics.

These songs must be very carefully and critically examined to see that the correspond with the content of the lesson (Offorma 1991). Songs can be used by the teachers to achieve the same objectives as the other lacking
instructional materials can use Songs. Since song can be sung over and over again, it provides an interesting way to execute drills in mathematics skills. It is upon the above premises that the researcher decided to embark on this work whose aims include:
1. Selection and composition of songs which can help children to acquire skills (stated objectives) in mathematics with ease
2. Experiment on some of the activity songs with pupils in primary school level and find out their reaction towards them.
3. Locate the problems encountered and progress achieved in combining the two subjects while teaching.
4. Recommendation that may help to solve some of the problems arising in using songs as a tool in teaching and learning of


Statement of the Problem

Educational researchers worldwide have focused on identifying ways and means of reversing the deteriorating school pupils achievement in mathematics. They dealt in many areas but there is no evidence in Nigeria about the effect of songs in  eaching and learning of mathematics.
Therefore the problem of this study posed as a question, what effect has songs on pupils achievement and retention in some primary school mathematics?

Purpose of the Study

The overall purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of songs on pupils achievement and retention in some primary school mathematics topics. Specifically the objectives of this study were to:
1. Compose some songs, which can be used for teaching and learning of some mathematics concepts;

3. Determine the effect of the songs on pupils retention of some selected mathematics topics;
4. Find out if a particular gender benefited more from the use of songs in learning mathematics.

Significance of the Study

This study will provide alternative models of teaching mathematics to teachers. Such teachers will be able to apply the use of songs I , effectively in the teaching of some mathematics concepts.
Pupils will also benefit from the finding of this work, since the use of songs will likely affect their attitudes and achievements towards mathematics positively, most of the time; songs are used to commit all the learning to his memory.

Mathematics educators will find the findings of this work used as a resource to modify and lot include in teaching learning mathematics successfully in their mathematics classes. The mathematics book writers may want to include the songs to explain concepts and also as a recitation in their books. If the uses of songs aid retention, then they will be largely explored since that is the essence of learning To the curriculum planners this work will aid their choice of songs for teaching some mathematics topics.

If the use of songs affects pupils retention positively, they will encourage it as memory verse like in Christian religious knowledge, English language, social studies and other subjects where they have memory verse in the text books and in the primary school curriculum module to enhance retention and recall abilities in applying mathematical formulator concepts in solving related problems. If the use of songs has different effects on the males and females then the positive effects will be encouraged (the use of songs) for the benefiting gender that did not benefit.
Finally, the mathematics association within and outside Nigeria will benefit from the songs composed in this work. It will urge the association to research into, develop and composed more songs for topics not covered. These will be enrichment programmed at conferences and workshop to help eliminate monotony of teaching methods and abstract nature of  mathematics

Scope of the Study

This study was restricted, specifically, to the use of songs in teaching some topics in senior primary school mathematics in Sure-lere local government area of Lagos state for adequate teaching and supervising of the pupils.
The mathematical topics covered are:
1. Roman numerals
2. Simple interest
3. Angles
4. Properties of triangles
5. Area and perimeter of plane shape: –
– Square
– Rectangle
– Triangle
– Circle

Research Questions

To investigate the problem of this study the researcher formulated the following research questions:
1. Can songs be composed for the study of mathematics?
2. What are the mean achievement scores of those taught with songs and th’ose taught without songs on the selected topics?
3. What are the mean retention scores of the pupils taught with songs and those taught without songs on the learned concepts?
4. Which particular gender benefited more from learning the mathematics concepts with songs?


The following hypotheses are postulated at the 0.05 level of significance.
Hypothesis I :
There is no significant difference in the mean achievement score of pupils taught mathematics with songs and those taught without songs as measured by the test on the selected mathematics topics.
Hypothesis 2:
There is no significant difference between the mean retention scores of pupil taught some mathematics topics with songs and those taught without songs in the test.
Hypothesis 3:
There is no significance different between the mean achievement score of the male and female pupils taught with songs in the mathematics tests.



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