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PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE ON THE QUALITY OF SOIL IN UGWUAJI DUMP SITE

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE ON THE QUALITY OF SOIL IN UGWUAJI DUMP SITE

ABSTRACT

Solid waste is a major environmental threat to most Nigerian cities. The rapid population growth, industrialization and technological changes
and patterns have increased solid waste challenges. These factors and several others such as inadequate infrastructures, weak environmental administration and management are responsible for ineffective waste management strategies. In developing countries, large amount of waste are dumped daily in open dumping site without proper management. Urban industries, agricultural activities, hospitals household and market activities in Enugu city generate immense solid waste daily. To take care of these, the state government provided a site in 1992 at Ugwuaji for disposing and managing the wastes. However the standards of the dumpsite and the management strategies fall short of environmentally accepted standards. Expectedly, the soil quality and aesthetic appearance of the entire area has been grossly affected. The interest in this study is to assess the quality of the soil in the dumpsite in terms of its functional ability to support the ecosystem.
To do this, this study examined the heavy metal concentration in the study sample. Six heavy metal considered to be hazardous to human
and environmental health were chosen for analysis. These include Lead, Cadmium, Copper, Iron, Manganese and Nickel. The six elements were analyzed in soil samples using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) machine at Ecochem scientific Laboratory.
Targeted sampling method was used in the collect on of the soil samples from the dumpsite. The sampling depth was about 170-200m
deep into the ground. The study revealed that the soil is heavily contaminated with Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), copper (cu) Iron (Fe), Manganese and Nickel (Ni) with contamination factor as 19.89, 16.26, 25.06, 270.5, 245.25 and 1.20 respectively. These heavy metals are very high from the waste dump when compared with NESREA heavy metal threshold limit. Further findings in the study revealed that heavy metal pollutants in Ugwuaji dumpsite decreases as the distance increased. From the study, it is recommended that more adequate and environmentally friendly methods of waste disposal like the sanitary landfill be used in dumpsites. Also, appropriate policies and legislation should be put in place to regulate solid waste disposal practices so as to prevent contamination of the environment, especially soil, around these dumpsites.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Solid waste is a major environmental threat to most Nigerian cities. The rapid population growth, industrialization and technological changes and patterns have increased solid waste challenges. These factors and several others such as inadequate infrastructure, weak environmental administration and management are responsible for ineffective waste management services. Solid waste generation and management are processes dependent upon a number of factors.

These factors are human, population, economic growth of the society and her citizens, level of technological development of the society, culture and habit of the citizens. The generation of solid waste is one such problem created by rapid population growth coupled with inefficient waste disposal technique and worsened by inconsistent waste management policies. Ojiaku (1994) reported that uncontrolled solid waste disposal on land contaminate the soil and is highly related to health hazard, consequently requires adequate mitigation measures.

Due to improvement of quality of life of Nigerians from the 1970’s an attitude of robust appetite for the consumption of all sorts of artificially packaged food manufactured locally and abroad and the increased industrial, clinical, agricultural and manufacturing activities brought about an increase in the generation of solid waste in Nigeria.
Government, private firms, individuals, industries and market people are experiencing difficulty in their commitment to control the degree
or amount of solid waste generated in Nigeria and ensure adequate and efficient management of generated wastes. These bodies mentioned have only paid lip services to the problem of solid waste generation and its possible or more efficient way of managing such waste to reduce or avoid its impact mostly on the quality of soil.

Solid waste has been creating unsightly condition especially in Enugu urban where it has been a source of worry. The environment of the city including it’s streams, rivers and soil has become a dumping site for solid waste. One could easily see the menace of solid waste on the soil in the study area and it’s far reaching effects on the soil quality and human health. This soil may show very high concentration of heavy metals as well as high nitrate and nitrite concentration. The unending case of dumping solid waste on the soil without proper management may eventually pollute and degrade the soil.
The waste comprises of degradable and non-degradable materials like kitchen waste, empty cans, textile materials, hospital waste, chemical
lumps from industries and factories, brewery wastes among others are seen in many dumpsites. It is this callous attitude or feeling of (individual habit, improper management, I don’t care attitude) “after all it is not at my backyard”; the concern for the health of the people and crop yield by ensuring good, safe and quality soil for agriculture that gave rise to this research work. The study is geared towards comparing and carrying
out a systematic soil quality examination and looking into the effect of solid waste on soil quality in Ugwuaji area as well as examination the
parameters of soil pollution.

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE ON THE QUALITY OF SOIL IN UGWUAJI DUMP SITE

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Urban industries, agricultural activities, hospitals, household and market activities in Enugu city generate immense solid waste daily.
Enugu state government provided a site in Ugwuaji for disposing and managing the waste. The Ugwuaji area is an open dump located in the
outskirt of Enugu city. The management processes include transportation and disposal of solid waste.

The site has been in use since 1992, but unfortunately the standards required of the Ugwuaji site and its management strategies have not been met thus making this study crucial. Dumping of all categories of waste and discharging of sewage improperly on the site now pollutes the soil and defaces the aesthetic value of the area. This stands out as a problem that needs urgent research and implementation procedure. Wastes are being disposed recklessly on the site without adequate management and concern for the environment.

Due to the uncontrolled dumping and disposal of solid waste in Ugwuaji site and lack of expected management of solid waste in the area, it is expected that the soil quality has been adversely affected. This project examines the effects of solid waste on heavy metal It is believed that the problem of improper solid waste management might have affected the soil n the surrounding areas of ugwuaji site. Thus there is an urgent need to investigate the effects on soil, the extent to which it has reduced the soil quality in the area and other cognate effects it posses to the environment. In line with the foregoing, the challenge before the researcher is an empirical one. It entails examining the impact of solid waste on the quality of soil in Ugwuaji area and the remedial processes to be employed.

1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

 The aim of this study is to examine the effects of solid waste on the quality of soil in Ugwuaji dump site. To achieve this, the following objectives were addressed.
(i) To examine the level of various heavy metals found in soil samples around the dumpsite
(ii) To determine the relationship between the levels of the various heavy metals and distance from the dumpsite
(iii) To compare the heavy metal concentration in the dumpsite to the NESREA threshold limit

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

PROJECT TOPIC- EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE ON THE QUALITY OF SOIL IN UGWUAJI DUMP SITE

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