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PROJECT TOPIC- AN EMPRICAL EXAMINATION OF INSTRUMENT FOR MOVITATING 01L .COMPANY EMPLOYEES

PROJECT TOPIC- AN EMPRICAL EXAMINATION OF INSTRUMENT FOR MOVITATING 01L .COMPANY 

 

ABSTRACT

The pilrpose of this study is to ascertain the nature of m o h t i o ~ ~ inst~-urncr~itns usc in tlic oil inclustry and their levcl of cf’kctivet~ess.
Thc fieldwork was carried out in Shell Petrolcu~li Develop~ilctit Company Nigeria limited, Chevronrrexaco and ExxonMobil, which wcl-e
used as case study. The instruments wed for data collection are Qucstion~inirc tnethod, personal interview and observation. The analysis of data col lcctctl indicates the ibllowings: (I) Money serves as a major niotivational instrument in the companies cspecinlly among the junior workers who have basic ncrds to satisl); (2) a relatio~~shiepx ists between employees motivation and his job performallce in the organizations; (3) In addition to 11ioneta1-yr ewartls, woslters are motivated by fringe benefits and welfare for themselves a d thcir family, exa~nples are Housing, good and standard ~netlical 1Bcilities, car scl~eme/transportatio~ch, ildren educatio~ia nd so on. (4) There is a relationship between motivation and job satislhction.
Basccl on the above, it was recommended that diSScl-cnt motivations tools corilcl be applied to different categories ol’ wol.lic~.s in linc n-it1
icle~itTi ied cum perceived needs of the wot-lters

1.0 INTRODUCTION

l .l BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

It is eviclence that oil-producing companies are the most desirccl and prefcn-erl organization among job seekers in the country. I Iocvever, only few
Nigerians are privilegecl to work there. These people value their job so ~iiuclit hat they will put in everything to make their organization succeed. l’lieir pcsformnnce far exceeds that of their counterparts in government establislinie~~atsn d i n other private co~iipanies. Their enthusiasm, commitment and loyalty to tlicir orgnnizatioris is so glaring. They also display self-fulfillment and joh satisfaction.
Cased on this development, it is ge~ierally believed that thc worlters in tlie oil protlucing conipanics arc highly motivated.
h4otivation involves the application of veritable instrunients to encourage WOI.~CI-S in all \vo~.kplaces. A motivated workforce is a satisfied worlcfor-ce: thi? will I turn i~icrease tlieir- performance and overall pro(li~ctivtiy of tlici~ organi7ation. With motivation, the worl<force will be focuscd md comniitted tc achieving 01-ganizational ~oals. On tlie other hand when a workforce is no n~otivntecl,t hey \vill be clissittistied. This feeling of dissatisl’nction will i111pai10 1 their- pcrl’orr~~~nmccel negates Ihc actualization of organizational goal. Stone (1978:405) pointed out that motivation is an important subjcct bccausc manager-r by dc lini tion, work with and tl~rouglip eople.

They need some un(ltr.~~sta~iwchli ~ people behave as they do, so that they can influence people to perform in ways th: tlie Inanngers ‘lind desirable. Steers anrl Porter (1 991 : 1 10) see no ti vat ion as tIamou~ lt oI’ energy and direction of energy displayed by an individual. St31 (Ii)95:334) but~ressecl his claini by stating that an individual can bc great1 motivated in one setting but poorly motivated in a~iother setting. Therefore, makcs little or no sense to make general statement about a pelson’s titivation~status ~without bowing the a~nounta id tlie direction of energy exl~e~ideci motivating lii~n/lier. 111 the view OF Allport (1 937:54), Argyris (1 957: 120), Maslow (1 9′;4:96 rtncl Mcgrgor ( 1 960: I SO), employees will be almost inevitably li-ustrated \ ~ i traditional iobs, especially in a mass production industry. \Volkxs seek soci belonging, independence and social growth. They aspire to nsce~icl to what Maslo 113s callecl tlie “~iecd hiel-archy” ladder, from satisfaction of physical, t111-ouk srtlkty, social, n11cl egoistic, to self-actualization needs. I-ience, once basic extrins ~~eccal-so satisfied. intrinsic needs assume greater importance. furthermore ut satisl’actions are desired on the job (tliis is a critical point). According to Stmu
(1976:2 I), organizations Sail to recognize these aspirations and follow instead wEi McG~.ego(~ 1-9 60: 1 SO) called theory x ass~~~tiptiothnast worlters dislike wo1-1c a1 wish to avoid ~~spo~isibilitie11s1.t lie course of doing tliis, they structure work such a way that the workcrs condemned to isolation, passivity, dependence, and t use of mini~nal nbi litics. Consequently, worlters become alienated IYom th work. ‘fhis can equally cuusc tlissatisSaction among the worklhrce. Stalil (1955:334) postulated that motivation is critical to u~~derstandinjogb l r ~ ~ Stoener.

PROJECT TOPIC- AN EMPRICAL EXAMINATION OF INSTRUMENT FOR MOVITATING 01L .COMPANY 

(19 78:406) said niotivation is not tllc orily Lucinda~ioco ti a person’s pesfor~iia~icIecv el. I-Ie ~iiaintainedt hat the two factors that influe~icell o\v wcll a pcssvti perfbr~i~ins any givcn situation arc indiviclual’s ahilitics ulid tile individua 1’s understanding of what bellaviors are necessary ill older to achieve
high pcr~o~.~nalicTeh.e latter factor is what is referred to as “rolc perception”. If any of the hctors hns low value, perfol-mance level is likely to be low, even if tile othcr I’actoss ase higli. Stahl’s perspective is that peribrmai~oe is ~1 li~nctiuti niotivatio~i and ability.

Motivation arid ability interact to yield Iiigli iiiclivicliral I ~ c I – ~ u ~tIli~i~~sc r~caIt~incg ca ,m ultiplier effect on performance and productivity. If either motivation or ability is zero, then the resulting perfosmance will bc zcro. Motivation and job satisfaction are requisite tools for high job peslu~m~nce i l l the orgn~~izationsIt. is a11 unpalatable fact that a worker niust be satislied L~eht-e P . Iic can bc molivntecl into action. I llcrefore, it is important Lo note that any qua1 i tntive tscatisc on motivation * . sntishction. I his is because; they are Iva~icevicli and Dolielly ( 1970: 102) nlust not exclude pcsib~ma~icca ~id j011 the reason for niotivntirig a wssker. Gibson. said that motivation and satisfactio~i are ~.tlatcriI, ~ u at rc not synonymous concepts; wliicli agrees with the ngl-eenie~iiln tlic roregoi~ig scenario.

l’licy obsc~.vcil ilia! satislbction is anotllcl- val-iahlu rhat is part of the motivationnl process. Satisfaction generally means tlic li~lfill~ncanctq uired by expel-icncing various job activities and rewards. The term satisfaction is used to analy7e outconxs nlscndy cxperiencecl by e~iiployec (Wanous and 1,awles. I .. l Oi’2:95- 1 05). Hence satisfaction is a consequence of ~-e\vardsa nd punislilnent I nssociatccl with pcrli)rriiance. Maliagcl-s ~i i i~sIat io\v that the 1vo1-kcr can be I sntisficcl, or tlissatisiicd with tlie behavior, performance, and reward relationships that crrr~mtlye xist.
Dil’l’crcnt ~notivational tools exist ibr organizations in motivating their employees, this is why there are many pool of theories in 111anagenle11lti terattire on 1 motivation. M;11iclgers must note that what motivates in one situation mi&t not I I motivate in another situation. What motivates and satisfies work A, tilay 11ot ~notivate and satisly workcr B. A manager should w – y 11 is no ti vat ionill I instrunlents rlepcriding on tlie effectiveness oTeacll at any particular poi~iti n time. Iiobbins ( 1 996:2 12) s~rpporteclt he above point by stressing that i~idividualsd if’kr in their basic motivational drives. ‘I’liis implies that a particular motivatio~ial instrument cannot be cSfective for all situatio~is. 111 achieving this, care must he I taken as to how a1 tools are applied it1 organizations, so that they do not spell negative oi~tconlcs Ibr the organization. George and Jones (1996: 162) obselwd
I . that workers could be motivated in fi~l~ctionawl ays that help a n organization I. achicvc its goals or in dysfi~nctional ways that hinder an organization li.0111 I achieving its goals. ‘The choice is that of the managers to male. I

1.1.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF SHELL, CHEVRON TEXACO COMPANY

AND EXXONMOBIL OIL IN NIGERIA.

‘7’hc researcher took a step further to provide information on history of the oil producing companies used as case study as shown below.
Sllcll Petroleum Development Co~npanyo f Nigeria (Sl’DC) is

PROJECT TOPIC- AN EMPRICAL EXAMINATION OF INSTRUMENT FOR MOVITATING 01L .COMPANY 

 

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