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The study focuses on the Entrepreneurial Skills Needed by Business Education Students for Self Reliance Ebonyi State University.Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 502 lecturers and students.Sample of the study consisted of the entire 200 respondents. Structured questionnaire was formulated for data collection. It was validated by three experts, two from Business Education Department and one from Science Education all in Ebonyi State University. An overall reliability co-efficient of 0.92 was obtained. The data was analyzed using simple statistical mean. Results from the data analyzed showed that:managerial skills are skills required by business education students for self reliance, human relationship skills are needed for business education for self reliance, innovation skills required skills for business education students for self reliance and that communication skills are required competencies for business education students for self reliance.Based on the findings, the study recommended that: curricula of the office education programmes in tertiary institutions should include the identified managerial skills and the ministry of Education should use the findings of this research to organize seminars, conferences and workshops for retraining of teachers in education field over adoption of human relationship skills in the studying of entrepreneurship and Government in all ramifications should provide adequate funds in financing entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institutions as it relates with creativity skills.Finally, conclusion and suggestions for further studies were made.



Background to the Study

Education is a key factor that shapes the standard of living or the way of life of the people, preserving the norms and values of the society and maintaining the success of the economy, (Linan 2014). Having this in mind, one would agree that the best way for fostering entrepreneurial spirit into the live of Nigerian universities undergraduates is through entrepreneurial education which seeks for self reliance.  

Entrepreneurial education refers to the training to develop entrepreneurial attitudes, skills, and values which involve developing certain personal qualities focused on creation of new business and how to minimize failure or the risk of being entrepreneur, (Pribadi, 2014). Entrepreneurial education seeks to provide learners with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a variation of settings. Variations of entrepreneurial education are necessary and need to be offered at all levels of school in Nigeria from primary to secondary schools and to university programme.

In the same vein, Linan (2014) opines that there are many types of entrepreneurial education programmes that are available for classroom teachers to integrate into the classroom interaction for those who wish to increase their skills and attitudes of entrepreneurship for the purpose of increasing their economic status. Business Education equips individual with certain abilities, aptitudes and competence which are required to getting jobs in the business environment.

They also asserted that Business Education also gives the recipients the wisdom in overall business knowledge which will make them effective purchaser and consumer of business commodities. According to Liles in Nwosu, Oforka and Omeje (2010), the entrepreneurial risks includes: financial risk, career risk, family, social risk and psychic risk. They maintain that formal education provides the strategies to avoid these stated entrepreneurial risks by providing the learners with entrepreneurial skills, knowledge and techniques which can be acquired through classroom interaction like financing (funds), marketing, forecasting, supply chain, logistic, statistic among others.

Azuka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomuo (2006) opined that Business Education equips youths for employment or trade. They further explained that Business Education provides the youth with important information that concern their live as citizens and individuals. Business Education equips people with certain abilities, aptitudes and competence which are required to getting jobs in the business environment, ( Azuka, Nwosu, Kanu and Agomuo 2006).

They also asserted that Business Education also gives the recipients the wisdom in overall business knowledge which will make them effective purchaser and consumer of business commodities. According to Igboke (2012), Business Education is that part of the overall educational programme that provides the knowledge, skills, understanding and attitudes needed to succeed.  

Skills as basic ability is the means by which man adjust to life. A person’s attitude and work functions are required and necessary antidotes suggesting the suitable skills performance and acquisition of same by going through a given work sample. In the work place, skill is what the workers give in exchange for numeration. If the skill (or the cluster of skills popularly referred to as aptitudes) given is satisfactory, the worker gets satisfaction and the employer gets satisfactoriness in correspondence. This process, if sustained culminates in promotion, retaining and prolonged tenure that leads to productivity (Adeyemo, 2010).

On retirement from active working life, man’s repertoire of skills will no longer be relevant to help him to adjust to life. He needs new skills on how to enjoy his leisure and adjust in his new way of life. This situation is the same for a handicapped person, a widow or indeed any person whose way of life has changed radically. Hence man’s rehabilitation in these contexts requires new skills with special consideration to his aptitudes and work functions. In this case of youth, whole adjustment in the world of work will rest solely on skill developed and used first at school and later at work; the economic, moral and political time of the nation will in time to come and depend on it and these will from time to time determine its survival (Adeyemo, 2013).

In a classroom situation, skill is the ability to perform some tasks creditability. Up to a point, the more practice in the doing of specific task the faster and better they can be done. It is associated with know-how while speed and accuracy are some of its traits and characteristics. Children who love to paint with crayon and water color often develop unusual perspective and excellent representation of nature.

McCarthy (2009) has identified six scales and eighteen skills that can be sorted grouped to describe various aptitudes in children for placement, when the promotion and remediation is a highly treasured experience which every good teacher must possess. Acquisition and reinforcement of skills and aptitudes through science laboratories and workshop practice and other curricular and extracurricular activities represent the most natural ways of stimulating science education and real life work which lead to high productivity.

These considerations underscore the need to focus skill development and assessment in business education and in-service training programmes, more especially in the science based teaching subject areas of physics, chemistry, biology, integrated science, agricultural science, introductory technology, wood work, metal work, electrical electronics, home economics, clothing and textiles etc. This research work therefore attempts to explore briefly the concepts of skills, entrepreneurial Skills needed in business education.


Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria today, the increasing rate of social problems have become worrisome to the government and to every well meaning citizen. The incidence of Poverty in Nigeria is on the high side,70% the total human population has been classified as poor (Ewhrudjakpor, 2008). The problem of unemployment is particularly pathetic as the number of those coming out from various institutions looking for none existing employment opportunity is increasing day by day.

The situation in Nigeria is of such concern that hundreds of unemployed university graduates mounted a demonstration in front of the presidential offices to express their concern. They demanded that government should provide them with jobs to cater for their essential needs of life (Dabalen, Oni and Adekola 2014). In this era of shrinking economic activities, governments seem to have failed in providing necessary infrastructures and policies that are required for skill acquisition, self reliance and non dependent on only government for provision of all social amenities among the citizenry.

This is because without appropriate policy and technological skill, entrepreneurial spirit which drives economic development through job creation now be lacking. The fast pace of development recorded in nations like Malaysia, Indonesia, Brazil and India among others have clearly shown that development is driven by the innovativeness, creativity and enterprise of the people. Unfortunately, Nigeria has not been able to enact similar feats owing to poor linkage between knowledge and development and between the private and public sector of the economy.

Probably, these may have been due to lack of appropriate skills development and sufficient entrepreneurial culture in Nigerian educational system. In Ebonyi, the growing problem of unemployment in the country has contributed largely to the worsening problem of poverty among the populace. Unemployment has led to frustration and disillusionment which may result to crime or drug abuse in a futile attempt to escape from and forget the pains and humiliation of poverty and lack.

Many able bodies and unemployed qualified graduates could not secure gainful employment and have remained economically dependent on their parents. This may be as a lack of necessary occupational skills to be self employed and to effectively function in today’s world of work. Despite the compulsory entrepreneurial education in Nigeria Universities many graduates in Ebonyi State still remain unemployed after their graduation. This has motivated the researcher to investigate the effective management strategies that will enhance entrepreneurial education program for graduate employment in Ebonyi State.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to assess the Entrepreneurial skills needed by Business Education Students for self reliance Ebonyi State University. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the managerial skills required by business education students for self reliance
  2. Ascertain human relationshipskills needed by business education students for self reliance.
  3. Determine the innovativeskills required by business education students for self reliance
  4. Determine the communication skills needed by entrepreneurial for self reliance.

Significance of the Study

This study will be immense significance to the undergraduate, administrators, lecturers, government and policy maker.

The findings of this study will benefit the government by creating awareness on the effort being made by various Nigerian universities on the implementation and achievement of government policy on Entrepreneurship Education which the government has great interest.

The findings will aid the policy makers to implement reasonable policies that will help in reducing graduates unemployment in the state and set out strategies for the management of entrepreneur studies in the state. Because thousands of students’ graduates every year without job, set the government back intense of development but if adequate policy are mainly focuses on reduction of unemployment, the society will grow and develop at large.

The findings will be of benefits to the undergraduates because the study portrays the step which graduates will take to help them without carrying files along the street in search of White collar job. And if implemented by the undergraduates, this will be of benefits to graduates themselves and the society at large, through this, the undergraduates will pick courage towards their studies with hope that after study there is something good for them to earn a living.

The lecturers will adjust to a better management and delivery of the course. This will bring about effective and efficient teaching and learning of Entrepreneurship Education. The students will develop interest in Entrepreneurship Education as the lecturer applied difference teaching methods and instructional materials in their instruction. They will be more serious with the course and can apply themselves in establishing small business enterprise in absence of employment opportunities after graduating from the universities.

The findings of the study will help the administrators to known the various management strategies to use so as to promote entrepreneurial education in various institution of learning. Administrator through these findings will known the area needed to equipped in studying of entrepreneurial studies in tertiary institution. Because if this need are not identify the students will find it difficult to cope with their entrepreneurial skills.

The study therefore, concerned with entrepreneurial skills in Ebonyi State. It is purely an academic exercise that will help other researchers in the field of study for further research on the subject matters.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study.

  1. What are the managerial skills required by business education students for self reliance?
  2. What are human relationship skills needed by business education students for self reliance?
  3. What are the innovative skills required by business education students for self reliance?
  4. What are communication skills needed for self reliance by business education students?

Scope of the Study

 The study focuses on the assessment of entrepreneurial skills needed by Business Education Students for self reliance. The study covered the determination of managerial skills possessed by business education students, humanitarian skills possessed by students in Business Education Department, the effective of communication skills and creativity skill as entrepreneurial skills needed by students. The study will be delimited to students in Ebonyi State University Abakaliki.


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