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PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF SOME NIGERIA CORN VARIETIES FOR FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF SOME NIGERIA CORN VARIETIES FOR FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

ABSTRACT

Fossil fuels are non-renewable, and their excessive use has resulted in a lot of environmental problems. There is an urgent need to develop alternative renewable and environmental friendly energy sources. The objectives of this study were to: (i) compare the carbohydrate contents of some corn varieties grown in Nigeria. (ii) determine their amylose : amylopectin ratios. (iii) compare ethanol productivities and yields from the corn varieties, and (iv) make pragmatic economic analysis of corn ethanol production in Nigeria. Amongst the four corn varieties, Zea mays var. Indurata gave the highest (P<0.05) starch content of 64 % followed by Zea mays var. Praecox with 62 %, Zea mays.var Indentata with 60 % and Zea mays var. Ceratina with 57 %. Statistically, the starch contents of the corn varieties can be ranked as Zea mays var. Indurata > (Zea mays var. Praecox = Zea mays var. Indentata) > Zea mays var. Ceratina. The ethanol concentration obtained from 10 g of corn flour and 10 g of koji were (g/l) 24.70, 23.11, 22.38 and 21.30 for Zea mays.var Indurata, Zea mays var. Identata and Zea mays var. Ceratina, respectively. Fedbatch fermentation gives higher ethanol concentration of 47.08 g/l in 9 days. Economic analysis showed that with Zea mays var. Indurata at 6,000/100 kg market price, the cost of production is N276.42/L as at 2012. However, if the market price of corn can be reduced to N2,000/100kg, the cost of production will decrease to N92.00/L, which is profitable provided that the current fuel subsidy on fossil fuel is removed.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1 INTRODUCTION

Fuel ethanol is an alcohol produced for use as fuel. It is either used as a main source of energy or as an octane enhancer (Rausch et al; 2006). Some vehicles can run on 100% ethanol while others use blends of ethanol and gasoline (gasohol) in various proportions (Farrell et al; 2006). It is a very important agricultural product. It burns cleaner for the environment (Lubert et al; 2005). Fuel ethanol is a renewable energy source produced mainly by the fermentation process but can be synthesized by chemical processes such as reacting ethylene with steam (Anuj et al; 2007). Fuel ethanol produced from different biomass materials is called bio-ethanol.

It is renewable and it has lower energy density that gasoline and availability of feedstock for bio- ethanol can vary considerably from season to season. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, and their excessive use has resulted in a lot of environmental problems. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop alternative renewable and environmental friendly energy sources (Adenola et al; 2008). Furthermore, the current cost of production is still very high due to high cost of raw materials. Selection of raw materials for bio ethanol production is based on availability and cost which may vary from region to region (Van Ejantten, 2005). There is therefore a need to look for cheap and easily available raw material in Nigeria for bio-ethanol production. Fuel ethanol can be produced from different starch
sources such as corn and cassava.

 1.2 Raw Materials used for Ethanol production

Different raw materials are used for ethanol production such as bee, sugar cane, sweet sorghum and fruits. Starchy materials such as corn, milo, wheat, rice, potatoes, cassava, sweet potatoes etc. Cellulose materials like wood, used paper, crop residues (Krishan et al; 2011). Corn is commonly used because of the high starch contents it has in order to yield more ethanol. Corn is produced in almost all parts of the country. It is an important cereal being cultivated in the rainforest and the derived savannah zones in Nigeria.

There are different uses of corn which include cornmeal, popcorn, corn flakes, starch, cooking oil, corn syrup and ethanol (Van Ejantten, 2005). In order to sustain corn production in Nigeria, it is necessary to expand markets for corn by developing methods of processing the corn into value-added products in the country. The interest in production of bio-ethanol as an alternative fuel is increasing due to the non-renewable nature of fossil fuels and the environmental problems associated with their use.

In order to produce bio-ethanol as bio-fuel, the production cost has to be as low as possible. The cost of raw material (carbon source) represents more than 70 % of the total production cost (Krishan et al; 2011). Therefore production of bio-ethanol at competitive price requires the use of cheap raw material. Ethanol yield from corn depend on such factors as starch contents as well as on their amylase and amylopectin ratios.

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF SOME NIGERIA CORN VARIETIES FOR FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

1.3 Methods used for bio-ethanol production 

Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn. There are two processes by which corn ethanol can be produced. There are Wet Milling and Dry Milling. Wet Milling Method In wet milling the grain is soaked or “steep” in water and dilute with sulfurous acid (65 %) for 24 to 84 hours. This steeping facilitates the separation of the grain into its many component pats. After steeping the corn slurry is processed through a series of grinders to separate the corn germ.

The corn oil from the germ is either extracted on site or sold to crushers who extract the corn oil. The remaining fiber gluten and starch components are further segregated using centrifugation screen and hydrochloric separators.
The steeping liquid is concentrated product, heavy steep water, is co-dried with the fiber component and is then sold as gluten feed to the livestock industries. Heavy steep water is also sold by itself as a feed ingredient and is used as a component of Ice Ban, an environmentally friendly alternative to salt for remaining Ice from road (Singh, 2008). The glutton component (protein) is filtered and dried to produce corn gluten meal co-product. The starch and any remaining water from the mash can processed in one of the three ways; fermented into ethanol dried and sold as dried and modified corn starch, or processed into corn syrup.

Dry Grind Method

In the dry-grind ethanol process, the whole grain is processed; the residual components are separated at the end of the process. There are five major steps in the dry-grind method of ethanol production.
These Includes:
• Milling
• Liquefaction
• Saccharification
• Fermentation
• Distillation and recovery Milling
Milling involves processing corn through a hammer mill (with screens between 3.2 to 4.0 mm) to produce a corn flour (Raush et al; 2006). This whole corn flour is slurried with water. Liquefaction.
This slurry is cooked, also known as “Liquefaction”. Liquefaction is accomplished using a beaker that injects steam into the corn flour slurry to cook it at temperatures above 100 0C (212 0F). The heat and mechanical shear of the cooking process break apart the starch granules present in the Kernel endosperm, and the allowed to cool to 80 – 90 0C (175-195 0F), additional enzyme (alpha amylase) is added, and the slurry is allowed to continue liquefying for at least 30 minutes.

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF SOME NIGERIA CORN VARIETIES FOR FUEL ETHANOL PRODUCTION

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