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RESEARCH TOPIC – EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF MULTlMlXES AND PORRIDGES MADE FROM MAIZE, SOYBEAN, AND PLANTAIN FOR USE AS COMPLEMENTARY FOOD

EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF MULTlMlXES AND PORRIDGES MADE FROM MAIZE, SOYBEAN, AND PLANTAIN FOR USE AS COMPLEMENTARY FOOD

 

This study is part of a series of exploratory works on the use of cheap and locally available staples to improve the Nigerian traditional complimentary foods. The proximate, some mineral, and vitamin compositions of composite flours formulated from maize, soybean, and plantain land-race or hybrid were evaluated. The processing included sprouting maize for 48 h, boiling soybean for 1 h, and hand peeling plantain to obtain the pulp.

‘The samples were dried and milled into fine flours. The flours were combined in ratios of 70:30:0, 65305, 6030: 10, and 55:30:15 (protein basis) of maize, soybean, and plantain land-race or hybrid. Standard assay methods were used to evaluate the composites for nutrient composition. The nutrient levels of the composites were compared with Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines for formulated
supplementary foods for older infants and young children. “Ogi” flour and Nulrcnd served as the controls.

Porridges made from the composites were evaluated for sensory properties. The boiled soybean contained appreciable quantities of protein (42.18%) and lipid (18.60%). The energy levels of the flour blends and the protein levels of some of the composites (maize, soybean, and plantain landrace or hybrid, 60:30:10) were comparable to that of Nut-rend and met the Codex Alimentarius Commission Guidelines.

The composites showed nutritional superiority over “ogi” flour in tennis of protein, lipid, ash, and iron nutriture. The porridges made from the composites were accepted slightly by the judges. Further work is currently underway in our laboratory to improve the nutrient composition of the composites and the acceptability of their porridges.

KEYWORDS

nutrients, composite flour, porridges, acceptability, complementary food

INTRODUCTION

Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) and micronutrient deficiencies among infants and young children are the most prevalent nutritional
problem in Nigeria (FGN/UNICEF, 1994). PEM is very high with 43.1 % and 22.3% of under-fives moderately and severely malnourished,
respectively. Vitamin A deficiency in children (under-fives) is higher than 16% in some regions of the country, while anaemia rates are as high as 50% (FGN/UNICEF, 1994; Profiles, 2001). The aetiology of childhood malnutrition is related to poor food quality, insuficient nutrient intake, severe and repeated infections and use of inadequate complementary foods (Onis and Blossner, 1997).

In Nigeria, the traditional complementary foods consist mainly of porridges made from unsupplemented cereals (maize, sorghum, and millet), which do not meet the energy and nutrient needs of infants. Svanberg (1987) observed that one of the problems with traditional complementary food is that the porridges are either too watery (liquid gruel) and, thus have a low energy and nutrient density or too bulky (thick porridge) and cannot be consumed in suficient quantity by the children. There is need to modify and integrate cheap, nutritious
and locally available food crops into the traditional complementary food to meet the nutrient and energy needs of infants.

Maize grain is used to prepare “ogi” a traditional complementary food in Nigeria. The grain is low in total protein (10.65%) and is limiting
in lysine and t~yptophan(F AO, 1992). Soybean protein, however, is rich in lysine and could form a good protein complement to maize. Plantain has promising nutrient potentials and could contribute significant quantities of carotene (475 pg/100g) in the diet (FAO, 1990).

The improved variety Musa AAB, which was derived from two wild diploid species, Musa acuminate (AA) and Musa balbisana (BB), has improved mineral concentrations (Chukwu et a]., 1995). The maize traditional complementary food “ogi” could be improved by  supplementing maize with soybean and plantain. This study is part of an ongoing investigation to improve the nutritional quality of Nigerian traditional complementary food.

The 66 N. M. NNAM AND G. T. BAlYERl otjectives of the study were to

(1) formulate composite flours for use as complementary food from sprouted maize grains, boiled soybean seeds and plantain pulp,

(2) determine the nutrient composition of the compositen flours and compare the result with Codex Alimentarius Commission Standards for formulated complementary food for older infants and young children, and

(3) prepare porridges from the composite flours and evaluate their sensory properties.

 

EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF MULTlMlXES AND PORRIDGES MADE FROM MAIZE, SOYBEAN, AND PLANTAIN FOR USE AS COMPLEMENTARY FOOD

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Materials Yellow maize (Zea mays L.), soybeans (Glycine max), plantain hybrid (Musa AAB), and plantain landrace (Musa spp) were used for the study. Yellow maize and soybean were purchased from Nsukka market while plantain hybrid and plantain landrace were obtained from the International Institute of ‘Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan

 

EVALUATION OF THE NUTRIENT AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF MULTlMlXES AND PORRIDGES MADE FROM MAIZE, SOYBEAN, AND PLANTAIN FOR USE AS COMPLEMENTARY FOOD

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