Our Blog

List of recently published project topics and materials

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF THE COMBINED ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTUS MUELLERIANUS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF THE COMBINED ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTUS MUELLERIANUS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN

Abstract

Background: Infectious diseases caused by multi-resistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanol leaf extract and chromatographic fractions of the extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntze) Excell against Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas earuginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp. and Candida albicans. The combined effect of the extract or its fractions with ciprofloxacin was also tested.
Methods: The antimicrobial properties of the methanol extract of P. muellerianus and its fractions were determined in vitro using the agar diffusion method. Agar diffusion Checkerboard method and Overlay Inoculum susceptibility disc method were used to study the interaction of the extract or fraction with ciprofloxacin. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis for identification of constituents using standard procedures. The minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC) data obtained from the antimicrobial studies were analyzed for significant difference at p<0.05 using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: While n-hexane and methylene chloride fractions showed no activity against the test microorganisms, methanol crude extract and methanol fraction of the extract revealed a good concentration dependent antibacterial activity against P. earuginosa, P. mirabilis and E. faecalis. Combinations of the extract and ciprofloxacin produced antagonistic effect against P. mirabilis and E. faecalis while a synergistic effect was obtained against P. aeruginosa. The results of the phytochemical screening showed that the extract and the fractions contain glycosides, flavoniods, saponins, alkaloids. Conclusion: The methanol leaf extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus possess antibacterial activity against P. earuginosa, P. mirabilis and E. faecalis and could possibly be used in combination with ciprofloxacin to treat infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

Background

Infectious disease account for approximately one half of all deaths in tropical countries [1] and they are considered a major threat to human health because of the unavailability of vaccines or limited chemotherapy.
Ranked 5th in 1981, infectious diseases continue to be a growing public health concern [2] and they became the 3rd leading cause of death in 1992, with an increase of 58% [3]. Most of the current antibiotics have considerable limitations in terms of antimicrobial spectrum, side effects and their widespread overuse has led to increasing clinical resistance of previously sensitive microorganisms and to the occurrence of uncommon infections [4]. The use of
medicinal plants as a source of relief from illness can be traced back over 5 millennia to written documents of the early civilization in China, India and the near East, but it is doubtless an art as old as mankind.

Neanderthals living 6,000 years ago in present day Iraq used plants such as hollyback; which are still widely used in ethno medicine around the world [5]. With an advent of ever-increasing resistant bacteria and fungi strains, there has been a corresponding rise in the universal demand for natural antimicrobial therapeutics. Herbal medicines have widely been used and now form an integral part of the primary health care in many countries [6]. Plants used for traditional medicines contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as acute infectious diseases [7,8], and have therefore become sources of important drugs and the pharmaceutical industries have come to consider traditional medicine as a source of bioactive agents that can be used in the preparation of synthetic medicines.
Phyllanthus muellerianus (Kuntz) Excel; is a glabrous shrub or woody climber occasionally arborescent, found in Savannah and drier secondary forests. Common in coastal thicket and widespread in parts of Tropical Africa, Phyllanthus muellerianus is widely used to treat intestinal troubles, severe dysentery, constipation, stomach ache, jaundice, urethral discharges and as wound dressing [9]. The leaf extract is used as a vapour bath to treat veneral diseases and  oothache [10].
The antibacterial activities of the plant have been demonstrated in the leaf and stem back of the plant against some selected bacteria [11,12]. However, in the present research the antimicrobial properties of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus muellerianus and their various chromatographic fractions (n-hexane, methylene chloride and methanol) were evaluated and studied singly and in combination with ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum antibiotic, against a wider range of microorganisms such as Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas earuginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Candida albicans. The above organisms were chosen because they are ubiquitous in our environment and are the causative agents of most common infections. The standard antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was also chosen due to the fact that it is one the antibiotics usually prescribed for most common
infections and it is quite common to see a patient taking herbal medications and standard antibiotics concurrently.

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF THE COMBINED ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTUS MUELLERIANUS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN

Methods
Plant material

The leaves of the plant P. muellerianus were collected from Nsukka in Enugu State between the months of June and July, 2010 and were authenticated by Mr. A. O. Ozioko of Bioresource Development and Conservative Program Centre (BDCP) in Nsukka Enugu State, Nigeria. The voucher specimen for identification was deposited at the center.

Extraction of plant material

The pulverized dry leaves were extracted with a Soxhlet extractor using methanol (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) as the solvent. The extract recovered was evaporated to dryness under room temperature. The methanolic crude extract (40 g) was dissolved in about 400 ml of methanol and adsorbed
onto silica gel (50 – 200, Lab Tech Chemicals) and eluted in succession with n-hexane, methylene chloride and methanol in order of increasing polarity. The solvent was removed by evaporation to obtain solvent free fractions.

Phytochemical tests

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF THE COMBINED ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE LEAF EXTRACT OF PHYLLANTUS MUELLERIANUS WITH CIPROFLOXACIN

TO GET THE FULL PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL DELIVERED TO YOUR INBOX OR DOWNLOAD INSTANTLY, PAY N5000 Via: BANK
BANKACCOUNT NAME
ACCOUNT NUMBER
DIAMOND BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
007 031 2905
FIDELITY BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
560 028 4107
GTBFREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION013 772 5121
ZENITH BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
101 326 3297
OR Pay Online with ATMAfter Payment, you can use the chat app at the right-hand side of your browser to download the material immediately or Text Name, Title of the project paid for, your email address to 08060755653.Do you prefer paying with Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash or LiteCoin?

Hits: 0

Was the material helpful? Comment below. Need the material? Call 08060755653.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.