Our Blog

List of recently published project topics and materials

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS INDICATORS ON FIVE MEDICINALPLANTS FROM CRUDE OIL POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS INDICATORS ON FIVE MEDICINALPLANTS FROM CRUDE OIL POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT

ABSTRACT

In this work, evaluation of oxidative stress indicators on five medicinal plants collected from crude oil polluted environment was carried out. The medicinal plants evaluated are Psidium guajava, (L) (Myrtaceae), Chromolaena odorata, (L) king and H.E Robins (Asteraceae), Aspilia africana, (Pers.) C.D.Adams, (Asteraceae), Manihot esculenta. Crantz (Euphorbiaceae), and Gongronema latifolium Benth (Asclepiadaceae) Oil pollution affect both the physiological, biochemical and physical states of the plants in their natural environments, invariably some of these changes may be due to oxidative
stress on the plants brought about by the oil pollution of their natural environment The oxidative stresses in these five medicinal plants were evaluated using some oxidative stress indicators like ash values, effects on the epidermal cells and the stomata, the lipid peroxide, the total phenolic compounds contents and the ascorbic acid contents. Quantitative phytochemical screening was carried out, to examine the effect of the stress on the production of secondary metabolites by these medicinal plants.
From the results it was observed that there were indication of oxidative stress with respect to the ascorbic acid contents and ash values, but with respect to the effect on the epidermal cells and stomata lipid peroxide and total phenolic compounds, some of the test samples indicate oxidative stress while others did not. On the overall Psidium guajava gave indication of oxidative stress than the remaining four plants, i.e. A. africana, G. latifolium, Chromolaena odorata and M. esculenta.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

One of the considerable consequences of all phases of petroleum exploration, exploitation and utilization is the introduction of harmful substances into the environment. When such substances are introduced in considerable quantity, they challenge the natural resilience of the environment, and the result is that the delicate equilibrium of the environmental ecosystem is broken, and the environment becomes polluted (Agbaire and Esiefarienrhe, 2009). The components of ecosystem affected respond in different ways. While man and animals may respond by moving away from abused environment, plants, which lack locomotive ability do not, instead they respond by adjustment of some physiological, anatomical and biochemical structure and functions. The nature and magnitude of the plants response depend on the nature and magnitude of the environmental abuse. When the abuse overwhelms the normal resilient property of the plants to accommodate extraneous circumstances, the plants begin to elicit biochemical and physiological changes as a way to ameliorate the impacts associated with the environmental pollution. The plants, so subjected are said to be under stress, resulting in the production of certain biochemical agents as oxidative stress factors (O3, H2O2, O- 2, 0H, N0- 2).

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS INDICATORS ON FIVE MEDICINALPLANTS FROM CRUDE OIL POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT

Oxidative stress is a central factor in a number of biotic and abiotic stress phenomena that occur when there is a serious imbalance in any plant cell compartment between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defence, leading to physiological and metabolic changes. The presence of high concentration of ROS in cells causes oxidative damage to photosynthetic functions and vital bio-molecules, and disrupt cellular metabolism Crude oil spillage is pollutant that affects the environment and the ecosystem. It also introduces compounds and elements that caused oxidative stress to plants within the polluted environment. Also oil pollution exerts adverse effects on plants indirectly by making toxic minerals in the soil available to plants. A primary cause of death in oiled mangroves is disruption of gas exchange when aerial root are coated with oil and can
no longer supply oxygen to underground roots (cable roots) in hypoxic soils. Hydrocarbons also can enter mangroves through the root system and be trans-located to and accumulate in the leaves. They can destroy membranes and interrupt transpiration or poison other biochemical pathways.
Toxicity varies with oil composition, relative amounts of oil and dispersants and developmental stage of plants. It was reported that dispersed oil accumulated rapidly in seedlings than in larger trees, but that reverse was true for un-dispersed oil. Some physiological effects in plants may occur years after contamination by oil due to elevated mutation rates. The blockage of gaseous exchange will definitely lead to accumulation of gaseous elements and compounds such as CO2, CO, O- 2, and couple with the absorption of hydrocarbons through the roots will have damaging effects on the
plants (National Academies Press, 2003). Apart from the hydrocarbon absorbed through the roots other metal elements are also introduced into the plants through the root from the crude oil polluted soil environments. All these will interfere with the normal plants biochemical and physiological activities, because they will create oxidative stress in the plants However, cells are protected partly, from reactive oxygen species and other injurious
products by enzymatic and non-enzymatic defence mechanisms (Bowler, et al 1992, Elstner and Oswald, 1994). Defence against reactive oxygen species is provided by the scavenging properties of molecules. But in spite of this the different chemical activities, and elements and compounds introduced into the plants as a result of these crude oil pollution will definitely lead to change in the total ash values of the plants when compared to those from non-crude oil polluted environments. Also the oxidative stress brought to these plants as result of this pollution will affect the stomata and epidermal
cells of the leaves of these plants when compared with those from non-crude oil polluted environments. Most importantly, the level of the antioxidants like ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds will increase in a situation when there is oxidative stress. Also the level of lipid peroxide will rise in situation of oxidative stress. These were the five indicators used to evaluate the oxidative stress cause by crude oil polluted environments on the five chosen medicinal plants, namely, Chromolaena odorata (L) king and H.E Robins, Psidium guajava (L), Aspilia africana (Pers.) C.D.Adams, Manihot esculenta Crantz and Gongronema latifolium Benth.

Aims and Objectives;

PROJECT TOPIC- EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS INDICATORS ON FIVE MEDICINALPLANTS FROM CRUDE OIL POLLUTED ENVIRONMENT

TO GET THE FULL PROJECT TOPIC AND MATERIAL DELIVERED TO YOUR INBOX OR DOWNLOAD INSTANTLY, PAY N5000 Via: BANK
BANKACCOUNT NAME
ACCOUNT NUMBER
DIAMOND BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
007 031 2905
FIDELITY BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
560 028 4107
GTBFREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION013 772 5121
ZENITH BANK
FREEMANBIZ COMMUNICATION
101 326 3297
OR Pay Online with ATMAfter Payment, you can use the chat app at the right-hand side of your browser to download the material immediately or Text Name, Title of the project paid for, your email address to 08060755653.Do you prefer paying with Bitcoin? Bitcoin Payment for material purchase

Was the material helpful? Comment below. Need the material? Call 08060755653.