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This study examined the extent of availability and utilization of computer assisted language learning (CALL) by English Language teachers in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone. The success of integrating computer assisted Language Learning (CALL) in teaching and learning English Language depends heavily on the availability of computers for use in schools and computer literate teachers who can use computer in the classroom for effective teaching and learning. A descriptive survey research design was used. The researcher designed a structured questionnaire to gather information from
respondents. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the questionnaire data. Result obtained revealed lack of computers in the schools studied also barriers to technology use and teachers low level of computer awareness. It also revealed the extent teachers are aware of the use of computer in the teaching of English language. The researcher concluded with recommendations to facilitate the use of computer assisted Language Learning in the teaching and learning of English Language to enhance students performance in English Language.


Background of the Study

English language has become one of the most important Languages in the world. It is widely used in all areas of human endeavour, nationally and internationally. The global use of English Language is found in television programmes and in the internet. There are more websites made in English than in other language. Realizing the importance of English, many people have taken it as a second Language. Since English speaking countries are very
important part of global economy and its advancement, other political and country leaders must either learn English or find someone who understands English to interpret for them. Therefore, politics is one arena where English is important.

The English Language according to Obanya, (1982) fills a huge communication gap. It helps to facilitate contact between Nigerians of diverse Language groups. The English language is the first Language on the school curriculum; hence it is regarded as a core subject. A credit in the English Language is considered compulsory for the award of many of the country’s certificates. According to Ahmed (1999) the English Language is an indispensable Language of communication in Nigeria at both personal, national and international levels. However, the teaching of English Language is associated with a lot of problems.
It takes a long time to learn a new grammar system and thousands of new words. It also takes a lot of practice to develop listening, speaking, reading and writing skills in a new Language. English Language is taught everyday in schools time table and students’ performances at the examinations are still not satisfactory, Ahmed (1999). The National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004), in Nigeria emphasizes that children should be properly taught. The policy is also of the opinion that teaching and learning in Nigeria should lead to students’ acquisition of skills and competencies geared towards solving
their problems and that of the society.

The situation of general poor performance in English Language spreads through all levels of Nigeria’s educational ladder including primary, secondary and post-primary institutions (Keston 1999). In the view of Osunde and Ogiegbaen in the West African Examination Council Chief Examiner’s Report (2005), student’s poor performance in English Language is a long standing one. Annual reports from the West African Examination Councils (WAEC) (2005) reveal woeful performances from students who have made enrolment for the English Language examination a yearly ritual.

It is worrisome to note that the performance of these students have continued to deteriorate year after year in English Language despite all stake holder’s effort. The West African Examination Councils (WAEC) reports reveal that most candidates who take the Senior School Certificate Examination (SSCE) lack foundation in English grammar and usage. This implies that they are not well taught by their teachers.
The situation is pathetic, as a lot of factors may be responsible for the poor performance in the English Language examinations. One of these factors is the traditional content /knowledge oriented curriculum, which is still very much practised today. Teachers seem to have clung fast to the old fashioned ways and have refused to embrace the new trend of the total curriculum experience of the modern teacher. A modern teacher is a teacher who has seen the need to incorporate computer assisted language learning material in teaching and learning process.



Onwuka, (1988) had criticizes the content /knowledge –oriented curriculum like the one practiced by the teachers of the English Language. Such curriculum does not go beyond merely imparting knowledge to the students. Teachers have to go by the new technology, that is the use of computer in teaching and learning for a better performance.
A computer is an electronic device that accepts and stores input data and process the data and produces outputs as a result of step by step set instructions. Woherem,(2004) asserts that computers are marked by accuracy of results, speed in operation and versatility in operations; it has found application in all areas of life. However, the slow pace of both computer acquisition and literacy is having profound negative effect in secondary schools and other organizations. According to Anigbogu (2002), the word computer is a house hold name in modern technology in the developed countries in the world, but in Nigeria, the technology is still sounding strange to many people.

According to Mccormick (1993) computers can be used to diversify, develop and improve the pedagogical relation of teaching and learning. The computer is a technological innovation under the control of stored programme that can perform some of the intellectual role of man even beyond man capability, (Bada et al 2009). Reith (1993) defines computer as an electronic device which stores information on disc or magnetic tape; analyses it and produces information as required from the data on the tape.
Adekomi (2001) defines computer as a combination of related devices capable of solving problems by accepting data, performing described operations on a data, and supplying the results of these operations.
Computers, irrespective of type and size have five basic parts namely, input unit, memory units, Control Units (CU) Arithmetic and Logic Units (ALU) and output units. Both ALU and CU are joined into one piece of hardware known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU) which is the brain of the computer. According to Adekomi (2001), the primary functions of computers are inputting and storing information, processing information and outputting information. Innovations appearing today indicate that the world is dependent on computer technology (Ajibade, 2006) computer is a great learning tool for both young and old. According to Baugher (1999).

In Language, a computer can present words to be spelt, sound to be made, instructions to be followed. Computer can be used to evaluate students’ performance and direct students backward, forward, and sideways for appropriate learning activities, (Bada, 2009). Other potentials of computer in instruction identified by Abimbade (1997) are as follow: · Computer helps students to learn at their own pace.

· It produces significant time saving over conventional classroom instruction.
· It allows student’s control over the rate and sequence of their learning. ·

It gives appropriate feedback. ·

It promotes individualized instructions.
· It provides a more positive affective climate especially for slower learners. ·

It provides appropriate record-keeping and thereby monitors student’s progress.
· It gives more information to teachers.
· It motivates students.
The success of the integration of computer into the teaching and learning of English Language depends mostly on the level of awareness by the teachers and the actual utilization of computer in the classroom. The use of computer in teaching and learning is important. Therefore, the awareness and usage of computer by teachers of English Language right from secondary school become necessary, (Fakeye 2010).
Most researches by experts reveal lack of computers for use in schools. English Language being a core subject, will need adequate availability of computers for all teachers and students, hence the awareness of computer usage to teachers and its availability is very important. Several strategies have been proposed and adopted over the years which have helped in one way or the other but have not led to improved performances of students in
English Language. (Fakeye, 2010) went further to report that the availability of computer and its connectivity to the internet tend to non-existence in virtually all the schools. The level of use of computer for teaching depends on the availability of computer.

Anigbogu (2003 opines that not being aware of what computer can do limits teacher’s ability to desire the use of computers even when they have serious problems beyond the competence of conventional technologies. Bluhim (1987) opines that educational administrators were scarcely aware of the use of the technology as a tool for decision-making. Training is needed if the potential impact of ICT in educational organizations is to be realized. Therefore, the benefits of computer can only be enjoyed by a computer literate population, that is, teachers, students and the public. In a bid to achieve this, the federal government made computer education one of the subjects to be offered in both junior and senior secondary schools (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1998).

Moreover, in May 2000, the minister of science and technology introduced Fit it -yourself (FIY) computer assembly kits to be used in both secondary schools and tertiary institutions (Ayeoyenikan, 2000). Since its introduction, there have been relatively few studies on the level of teacher awareness and extent of utilization of teachers and computer use. Computer awareness refers to the ways in which computers may have an impact on education. Computer awareness programmes familiarizes the students/ teachers with computer technology and the basic principles on which computer works including some elementary basic programming (Yusuf, 1998a).

There is need to examine teachers’ awareness of the extent of utilization of computer such as in instructional delivery process (e.g the use of computer –assistant language learning). In modernized world, almost every aspect of people’s life is affected in some ways by computer. The development of Information Technology (IT) has spread through the application of computers in learning process, which is generally known as Computer Assisted Learning (CAL). A computer is used for the sake of facilitating people in learning, such as learning language. Computer is only a tool and a medium. Hence, its ability to perform is dependent on the users. In this case, the computer is an intermediary, it is merely a part of the entire learning process, (Hartoyo, 2008).

Presently, many articles have been written about the role of computer in English learning. Yet not many schools make use of computers for some reasons, it is obvious that Nigeria / Nsukka Education Zone have entered a new information age and there should be a link between computer and English language learning. Computer – Assisted Language Learning (CALL) is an approach to Language teaching and learning in which computer technology is used as an aid for presentation, reinforcement and assessment of material to be learned, usually including substantial interactive elements.
Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) studies the role and the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in second language learning and teaching. Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) programme presents a stimulus to which the learner must respond. The stimulus may be presented in any combination of text, still lineages, sound and motion video. The learner responds by typing at the keyboard, pointing and clicking with the mouse, or speaking into a microphone. The computer offers a feedback, indicating whether the learner’s response is right or wrong, and in the more sophisticated call programme, attempting to analyze the learner’s response and to pinpoint errors.
There is no objection that computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has come of age because computers have been a feature of teaching and learning of English Language as a second Language (ESL) since the 1960’s in a higher education and since the early 1980’s in secondary education. The rapid growth in the use of ICT in ESL in the 1980s led to the foundation of the two leading professional associations; CALICO (USA) in 1982 and EUROCALL (Europe) in 1986, both of which continue to thrive and now forms part of the world CALL umbrella association. Early CALL favoured an approach that drew heavily on practices associated with programmed instruction.

This was reflected in the term computer Assisted language Instruction (CALI), which originated in the USA and was in common use until the early 1980s when CALL became the dominant term. Throughout the 1980s CALL
widened its scope, embracing the communicative approach and a range of a new technologies, especially multimedia and communication technology. Source:,



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