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PROJECT TOPIC- EXTENT OF TEACHERS INVOLVEMENT IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS EFFECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO AFIKPO EDUCATIONAL ZONE

PROJECT TOPIC- EXTENT OF TEACHERS INVOLVEMENT IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS EFFECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO AFIKPO EDUCATIONAL ZONE

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Examination, according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 6th Edition, is a close look at something or some body, especially to see if there is anything wrong or to find the cause of a problem. According to Houston (1977) examination either oral or written is an important aspect of teaching-learning process as it tends to be a true test of knowledge, usually given by a teacher or an instructor

to a class or individual student, to determine the amount and quality of learning acquired over a period of time. Examination is also a way of testing systematically to determine the extent to which the students achieve instructional objectives. Examiners, invigilators, instructors, and teachers use examination as a device for sorting out students academic ability and performance, but this

cankerworm called examination malpractice has posed a great problem to the evaluation of the student’s ability, especially in the secondary schools where students are faced with series of external examinations. Malpractice, according to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 6th edition, is a careless, wrong, or illegal behaviour. While in a professional job.

It is a dishonest or an unlawful or a wrong method of taking examination by those at whose trust the examination procedures are placed, due to their selfish personal advantage. Examination malpractice is said to occur when examination does not take its proper form or method. This issue of examination malpractice would have not been possible, if the supervisors, invigilators, and teachers whose the

responsibilities of examination are trusted, are not interested in mapping out fraudulent ways to satisfy their selfish aims and gains. The genesis of examination malpractice in Nigeria can be traced to 1914 when the senior Cambridge examination leaked. There was first leakage in the West African Examination council in 1963, Omotos (1988), and since then hardly had any year passed without some published incident of teachers or students involvement in examination malpractice.

Students have been alleged to use various means of the perpetuate examination malpractice. It is pertinent to note that this would not have been possible if teachers and supervisors did not support them. However, the root cause of examination malpractice in Nigeria stems from the high degree of societal emphasis on paper qualification, certificate, and the crave to passing examination at all cost by both teachers and students.

Despite the menace of examination malpractice in the schools and society at large and all the instances of cancellations, reprimand, prosecution used by the West African examination council and Government, for instance the decree 20, imposing twenty-one (21) years jail term on any culprit of examination malpractice, still teachers involve themselves in examination malpractice. Hence, the need arises to examine the extent of teacher’s involvement in examination malpractices and its effects in secondary schools in Ebonyi state, with particular reference to Afikpo Educational Zone.

  • Statement of the problem

According to Houston (1977), examination both internal and external are meant to assess and evaluate the academic achievement of students in their work over a period of time. The West African Examination Council (1985), statistics shows an increasing rate of teachers and students involvement in examination malpractice from year to year, despite all attempts to minimize it, especially in secondary schools.

This reoccurring rate of examination malpractice has posed a problem in the realistic evaluation of students achievement. In his reaction, Otu (1981) cried out vehemently that examination malpractice is an evil, which has retarded the growth of education in Nigeria. In his view Uzoh (1982) noted that examination malpractice has led to the frustration of many students whose results are being seized.

It also damages the reputation, integrity and good name of an institution. Many teachers found guilty of encouraging or involving in any form of examination malpractice, have been banned from supervision and invigilation of external examination, either for some years or permanently and even black listed from marking West African Examination papers. Therefore, the problem being addressed by this study, put in a question form, is to what extent are teachers involved in examination malpractice?

PROJECT TOPIC- EXTENT OF TEACHERS INVOLVEMENT IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS EFFECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO AFIKPO EDUCATIONAL ZONE

  • PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

This research study is designed to examine the extent of teachers involvement in examination malpractice and its effects, in secondary schools in Ebonyi state, with particular reference to Afikpo educational zone. This study is specifically meant to achieve the following purposes.

  1. To identity some examination malpractice in Afikpo Educational Zone of Ebonyi state.
  2. To examine the roles of teachers in examination malpractice.
  3. To identity the factors that cause teachers to involve in examination malpractice.
  4. To find out ways of curbing examination malpractice, especially in schools in Afikpo Educational Zone of Ebonyi State.
  5. To examine the effects of teacher’s involvement in examination malpractice in secondary schools, in Ebonyi state, using Afikpo Education Zone as a case study.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is significant because when successfully completed, the findings will be of great value to educational administrators, West African Examination Council (WAEC), teachers, student and the nation at large. Educational administrators will be exposed to the various ways teachers contribute to examination malpractice.

This will assist them to reprimand the offenders, which wills serve as a deterrent to other teachers. West African Examination Council will be made aware of how teachers contribute to examination malpractice. This will enable it to know the caliber of teacher to employ as its supervisors and invigilators.

Teachers will also benefit from this study, as it will make them understand their faults and mistakes thereby, realizing how they contribute in reducing the standard of education. The government will in the long run devise means of motivating and rewarding the teachers to enable them reject any financial offer from students or parents in connection with examination malpractice.

  • Scope of the study

Having seen the importance of this study and bearing in mind that there are many people or groups that aid and what examination malpractice, also due to financial, materials and time constrains, the researcher deemed it necessary to limit the study to the following:

  1. Extent of teachers’ involvement only.
  2. To secondary schools in Afikpo Educational Zone of Ebonyi State.
    • RESEARCH QUESTIONS

To effectively carryout this study, the extent of teacher’s involvement in examination malpractice and its effects in secondary schools in Afikpo Educational Zone of Ebonyi state certain assumptions have been made which led to the following research questions.

  1. To what extent do teachers involve in various forms of examination malpractice?
  2. What are the various factors that cause teachers involvement in examination malpractice?
  3. What are the forms of these examination malpractices that teachers involve themselves in?
  4. What are the prospects available for curbing teachers involvement in examination malpractice?
  5. What are the effects of teachers involvement in examination malpractice on the students.
    • DEFINITION OF CONCEPTS

Under this section it is pertinent to look at the meaning of the core concepts in the research topic like; examination, Malpractice and examination Malpractice. These are seen below:

(a)   EXAMINATION:  The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English new edition by Hornby (1999) defines examination as a formal test of some body’s knowledge or ability especially by means of written questions or practical exercise.

Examination (oral and written) according to Houston (1977) is an important aspect of teaching learning process as it tends to be a true test of knowledge, usually given by a teacher or an instructor to a class or individual student, to determine the amount and quality of learning acquire over a period of time. It is also an instrument, which a teacher uses to assess the extent to which his instructional objectives have been achieved by the students.

  • MALPRACTICE: The Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary of current English new edition by Hornby (1999) defines malpractice as wrongdoing, neglect of duty e.g dishonest use of a position of trust for personal again. In educational sense, when examination does not take its proper method, it is said to be malpractice.
  • EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE: According to West African Examination Council (WAEC), examination malpractice can be defined as any irregular behaviour exhibited by candidates or any body charged with the conduct of examination in or outside examination hall before, during or after such examination such behaviour must be a sort of contravention of the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination.

 In common usage especially in contemporary Nigeria, examination malpractice refers to infringement of the prescribe code of conduct and behaviour first by the candidate and then by the teachers, invigilators, parents and markers as well.

PROJECT TOPIC- EXTENT OF TEACHERS INVOLVEMENT IN EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE AND ITS EFFECTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN EBONYI STATE WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO AFIKPO EDUCATIONAL ZONE

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