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PROJECT TOPIC – EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PLANT FROM PLANT

PROJECT TOPIC – EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PLANT FROM PLANT

 

ABSTRACT: Contact site for info

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

The word perfume derives from the latin ―per fumum‖ meaning through smoke, is fragrant liquid that is sprayed or rubbed on the skin or clothes to give a pleasant smell. Extraction of perfume from various plants resources is of ancient origin. Infact the natives from different tropical regions of the globe have long been extracting oil from numerous oil bearing plants. Human since the ancient time have known how to extract oil from their natural resources. Vegetable oils are naturally occurring esters of higher fatty acids and glycerol. They are widely distributed in nature and were first consumed as food. Later oils were discovered to be used as renewable raw materials for variety of non food production, for instance perfumes, disinfectants, inks to mention but a few.

 

1.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

Several thousands of plants distributed throughtout the world contain a group of odiferous, fragrance, oily products that are highly volatile organic substances collectively known as essential oils. ―Essential‖ does not mean ―most necessary‖ but rather the concentrated characteristics or quintessence of a natural flavor or fragrance raw material (Coulson et al 2003). Therefore, perfume may be from essential oils of vegetables or plant origin. It is a complex mixture of aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, alcoholic acid and short chain esters. The existence of perfume on certain plants has been known for thousands of years. They can be found in leaves, flowers, stems, barks, and roots. Ancient Egytians extracted essential oils from plants tissues by steam distillation (Ogbu,2005). Other methods of isolating essential oils includes solvent extraction, expression, cold plate or enfleurage. Some of these methods have been adopted by essential oil extracting industries. Information on perfume when the essential oils have been extracted from plants are of different type of oils and these will ultimately influence the smell of perfume over time namely:

1. The base oil (Base notes)- this will produce the scent that stays longest on the skin and for this reason it is usually added to the mixture e.g vanilla, ginnamon, sandalwood, mosses etc.
2. The middle oil (middle notes)- this also influences the smell of the perfume for quite sometime but not as long as the base note does e.g lemon grass, Yalang Ylang etc.
3. Top oil (top notes)- this is added to the mixture after the middle notes and may then be followed by some other substances which will help to bridge the scents together e.g orchard, rose, bergamount, lemon,orchid etc.

A formulation or recipe that rightly blend with the oil or fragrance is used and the reason perfume differs is due to the formulation or recipe that will give pleasant odour. It is necessary to choose a good recipe of formulation. Alcohol is added to the fragrance or essential oils as a primary solvent to reduce the strays of the oils. Fixatives are also used with the other ingredients like water, essential oils and alcohol to lower the rate of evaporation of the fragrance of essential oils. The reason why a perfume losses its fragrance faster than normal is because only a little amount of fixative was used when preparing the perfume.

PROJECT TOPIC – EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PLANT FROM PLANT

 

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

There is a high demand of essential oils for various purposes such as medicinal, perfumery, soap making, insecticides to mention but a few have opened up wide opportunities for global warming.
Imported essential oils are very expensive to meet the demand of our local consumer industries, therefore it becomes necessary to source and extract these oils from local source. In particular perfumes that are usually imported can be produced locally from a vast variety of oil

PROJECT TOPIC – EXTRACTION AND FORMULATION OF PLANT FROM PLANT

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