PROJECT TOPIC-STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY CURRICULUM
Environmental education therefore is for everyone (Noisy and Lawal, 199 1 : 5 8). every community, society, and every nation.
Environmental education movement had been spotty across the globe until October, 1977 when it assumed lo ball!.
coordinated dimension, sequel to the UNESCO-UNEP intero, overnmental conference on EE at Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR. The
ibiiisi Declaration and its 4 1 Recommendations (UNESCO, 1978) delineate a “substantive structure for EE and recommend policies * and strategies to be followed u orld-v,.idz” (Hunger fold and Pelvton.
1986:). One of the strategies is to introduce EE at zll levels of education (fornlal and non-fol-mal) across the globe. Differential attainments have been recorded for -m-ious countries with respect to introducing EE programmed or curricular at the primes>..
secondary and tertiasy levels of education. Hunger fold and Peyton (198″) noted the differences in the goals of the various cunicular introduced iil some Sol.dicr \Vest African, South American and Middle East Countries.
L? Nigeria. courses and pro~animates in EE. zre available ill only few tertiary education institutions. This has serious inlp1ica:ions for availability of EE teachers for secondary and primary schools. ,4t the secondary school level; thei-e has not been any approved pomegranate of EE. This paper suggests csr:e Ti-)!i ! ~15 c programmable could take and the necessary structu~.alx i d /.GI I:! –i t)!:.. l – . transformations that would facilitate the achievement clf kk i:. secondary sc.1~001in~ Nigeria.
The Nature and Content of Environmental Education: E~environmental educ;lion is not a neu academic o: professional discipline. It is rather a neu7d irlens~ono r orientation in both general, scholastic and professional education. For Chilies (1 991 : 106), EE “should 1:or b.e c. considered as another ‘subject’ peppercorn Lot a glace in the cx;st;zg sc!:c?o! p:-org$Mme, h!~t 25 P means of providing some wit to the educational process in the minds of e h !~ca :ners”.
Environmental education therefore utiIizes environment-related concepts. principles and generalizations developed in other
disciplines to prepare and equip h~unlznity for identification, in\estigation. e~.aluation. remediation and p~evention of
environmental problems. In specific terns any ~s~oith\i-hile programme of EE should aim at effecting the fol lowi i i~in learners:
a. a11 understand in^ of the causes, fosms. cl~arac~eristicasn d spatial distribution of environmental pli,9, 1ion~e i~a :
b. an appreciation of the types and q~laiities of. and differences in nat~ual resources endm\.ed to differen! environlnents:
c. a s~.rnpatliericu ndesstanding o f the d ~ p e l ~ d m cofe man on his environmen: for air. \I9ater, food. sheltcr. medicine.
clothing on;aments. decoratives, industrial ra\\. iuatzrials.
Genes!,, etc: and the dependence of e ~ i ~ . i ~ . ~ none mil TM ‘ s en\~impairment neutrality or healthy conducts for
maintenance of ecological BA!acne; d. the consciousness of the qualit> 2nd i~ealth of the en\.iso~~nle~it: C. the acquisition of physical and ~ n e ~ i t ASL? .;i!?sa s \\i.ll as attitudes. \.slues and habits require for envii~on~mental PI-protection and repairs: and
f. a consideration of l~um ne c o s ~ ~ s t mien Somoza-economic and political decision and policy x a k i n ~ .
‘Vv;i:a~e\.er smite~?mythology at is used oi defame :he specific intents i l l EF.,t he primary purpose is to re-orientate education:: to produce RN\.miscreant!ly iterate citizenry.
T!le content could vary from school to scoliosis or from one locality to ant!ier prided the ,goals are the same. However. 2
\s:~:-tiin:hile EE programme should contain e n o u ~ h themes that offer broad arid varied ieaming esperiences to facilitate a~tailmen: of EE. The foliou$lg themes!’topics :!re suggested.
(i) The earth: shape, size, rela~ionship ivith other planets al;d — A .a t!ie sun.
(ii) The lithosphere: structure, characteristics,. landforms and importance (the concepts of isostatic equilibriunl to bc
related to development efforts that result in iarge-scalk movement of rocks).
(iii) The atmosphere: structure and conlposition (Ozone lay. emphasized); atmospheric dynamics – \vinds, rainfall
importance to man and need to maintai!l a qualit! atmosphere.
(iv) The hydrosphere: distribution, ca~lposition and impostance; need for an unpolluted hydsosphese.
(v) T The Biosphere: \/e2etation and animals; I ypes, life. distribution and intesrelationshipsl the ecosj stem.
(vi) XaturaI Resources: types. distribution. extraction, processing, uses and associated environment-a1 prob!ems.
(xii) En\rironmental hazards: esosioil. desestification. flooding: deforestation etc.
(xiii) F’oliution: water. air, !and, noisc. thermal, etc.
(ix) Population, pci7erty: ecofen~inis!na nd the environment.
(x) Industrialization. urbanizatio~i. de\;clopment and the environment.
(xi) Agriculture, fishing. f~res t r>an, d L!ICe nvironi~ient.
(xii) Vv’ar, conflicts, dictatorship and the en\~isonment.
(xiii) Enviro~mlentalc onsen~ationp r,2iec ts.
(xiv) Solid waste disposal.