PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING GIRL-CHILD PARTICIPATION IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN YALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE
This research titled “factors affecting Girl Child participation in Secondary Education in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State” was aimed at determining parent poor socio-economic status affect girl-child participation in secondary education in Yala Local Government Area, attitude of parents towards girl-child education affects their educational achievement in secondary schools in Yala Local Government Area, early marriage affects girls-child secondary education in Yala Local Government Area and high illiteracy rate of parents affects girl-child secondary education in Yala Local Government. The researcher adopted a descriptive research design,The population for the study consists of all the 5,016 teachers and students in all the twenty two (22) secondary schools in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State. The sample of the study consists of 300 respondents. A simple random sampling technique was adopted to drawn the sample for the study. Data were collected and analyzed though the use questionnaires. The findings revealed that that parents poor socio-economic status affect girl-child education, attitude of parents towards girl-child education affect their educational achievement in secondary school, early marriage affect girl-child education in secondary schools. Based on the findings it was recommended that government in all ramifications should financially aid the parents through the provision of free education to her citizens. Good-orientation programmes should be given to parents to combat their negative attitude toward their girl child.
Background to the Study
Education as an instrument for the socio-economic and political development of any nation is never in doubt. Education is the transmission of what is worthwhile to individuals to make them knowledgeable and contributing members of the society (Odo, Ede and Ben 2010). Education as the acquisition of certain behavioural characteristics such as skill, attitudes, beliefs, tastes, ability to reason, knowledge and any other trait which enable one adjust and interact effectively with other individuals.
Education involves a combination of physical training with character building and manual activities with intellectual training. Education is also embracing all experiences through which an individual acquires knowledge or ideas, develops his intellect and strengthens his will. Orji (2010) put it that modern nations of the world have proved that for economic advancement, political democracy, industrial, technological and scientific breakthrough as well as character development to take place, the highest premium must be placed on education.
From the above definitions of education, it points out that the scholars emphasize on what education is all about and its importance in the national development. Through education, an individual will develop the capacity to contribute meaningfully to the growth and development of his country. For education to play its important roles, it must be functional and effective. Functionality and effectiveness in the sense that it brings desirable changes in what people think, the way people feel and interact with their physical, social, economic, cultural and political environment (Ocho, 2005).
Ocho further maintained that functionality in education will equip the citizens of a nation, who are found worthy in character and in learning to participate and contribute maximally to the development of the country. Education has been recognized as a tool par excellent and the spring board for effecting desired national economic growth and development. Formal education takes place in a school setting. This is teaching and learning process and it is only quality teachers that can beget quality students.
Teaching is an intimate contact between a more mature personality and a less mature one, which is designed to further the education of the later. Teaching has been defined by Wells (2009) as a cluster of activities that are noted about teachers such as explaining, deducing, motivating, taking attendance, keeping records of works, students’ progress and students’ background information.
Teaching is the science and art of assisting an individual to learn. The science in teaching entails the use of acquired knowledge from natural and behavioural sciences, in order to aid and appreciate the circumstances and personality of the learner. The art in teaching involves the use of creative and demonstrative skills in aiding the delivery of instruction (Ajoma, 2009). Overbought (2013) opined that teaching is assisting the learner to develop insight into a problem or to form an association between a response and a stimulus.
The main purpose of teaching is to effect desirable changes in students’ behavior. The promotion of learning is achieved if teaching is effective. Ogwuo (2009) defined learning as the process by which some activities enable the learner acquire experiences that tend to influence (change) his\her future behavior; provided that the characteristics of the change in behaviour cannot be explained on the basis of native response tendencies, maturation or temporary state of the learner, but the low level of illiteracy in Nigeria has become a major source of concern to the leaders and economic planners of our nation attempts have been made in Nigeria to universalize education.
The Universal Basic Education, (FME 2009) is an ambitious educational programme which was launched and executed by the government and the people of Nigeria to eradicate illiteracy, ignorance and poverty, as well as stimulating and accelerate national development, political consciousness and national integration. According to government, schooling will not only be free, but also compulsory system will not be limited to the six years primary education, but would include the three years of our junior secondary school. Abubaka (2010) stated that one reason for the introduction of the Universal Basic Education Programme in Nigeria under the Obasnajo administration on September 30th 1999, was to offer and to ensure that every Nigerian citizen of school age is offered the basic education in order to reduce the incidence of school drop out.
Additionally, the free education programme is to cater for those for some reasons, drop out of school through complementary approaches and ensure the acquisition of appropriate level of literacy, numeracy, communication and life skill (Orji, 2010). But of the problem of gender disparity in education as portrary by certain factors such as: low socio status, parental attitude, cultural heritage, high level of illiteracy and school enviorment remain factors influencing girl-child education.
Chukwuma (2008) asserted that families due to lack of finance to sponsor their girl child education hinder their child from schooling. Inadequate education emanate as a result of low socio-economc status of the family and this vehemently affect the education of the girl (Ezeanyim, 2015). This is inline with the postulation of Orji (2010) that the records of school dropout occurred due to inadequate fund to pursuit their academic investment.
Further, the issues of gender inequality as possessd by some culture disparage female from their male cointerparts. Chukwuma (2010) gender segregation mostly rooted from parental attitudes as some parents encouraged their male child to school and failed to send their female counterpart with the view that the female will not be useful in her father house. Some parent because of high illiteracy rate decide to send their girl child to farm with the view of showing her love and decide to send boy to school in order to suffere male child ( Odo, 2011).
Parent shows high level of illiteracy as some culture disregard western education and embrassed their traditional system of education. Eze (2002) reported that before the introduction of UBE in Nigeria, some children of primary school age did not have the opportunity of accessing formal education. Access to formal education is marked with significant inequality in education opportunities between boys and girls.
According to him, most parents are more inclined not to send their daughters to school because they are engaged in different forms of domestic activities such as helping them to generate fund for their family through hawking baby seating, early marriage as well as looking after aged parents UNESCO (2000) reported also that gender affects the curriculum, instructional materials and choice the career and general behaviour of people in schools.
The report noted that these gender stereotypes that exist in the Nigeria education system affect girl child education because some subjects taught in schools are perceived masculine while others are considered feminine. Alele (1966) equally collaborate as this when she noted that the idea of portraying boys as brave and girls as shy and timid indirectlygives the girls the message that their end road is in the kitchen.
Zaifada (2005) noted that in almost all societies, the female gender is always neglected to the background thus preventing them from participating and benefiting from the development effort of their own country. She observed that the society that raise the status of their female gender educationally, socially, politically and economically, generally enjoy high standard of living unlike the society where women remain largely illiterate and confined to the home front that perpetuate low standard of living.
PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING GIRL-CHILD PARTICIPATION IN SECONDARY EDUCATION IN YALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF CROSS RIVER STATE
Statement of the Problem
Poor enrollment of girl- child in secondary education in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State has become a worrisome development to educational development. Some have eluded it as a result of poor enlightenment of parents on the need for the girl-child education in the area. Some teachers accused some parents of disallowing their female children to be registered into the secondary education. Parents may have difficult views on why they prefer sending their boys to schools in the area of study.
The education of the girl child is undoubtedly important in the development of the nation so, access and equality of education to them is very important. This could be possible through increased secondary schools enrollment of girls. It is on the above premise that the researcherhas undertaken to investigate the factors affecting girls-child education in secondary school in Yala Local Government Area.
Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting Girl Child participation in Secondary Education in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State. Specifically, the study sought to find out how:
- parent poor socio-economic status affect girl-child participation in secondary education in Yala Local GovernmentArea.
- attitude of parents towards girl-child education affects their educational achievement in secondary schools in Yala Local Government Area.
- early marriage affects girls-child secondary education in Yala Local Government Area.
- high illiteracy rate of parents affects girl-child secondary education in Yala Local Government.
Significant of the Study
The findings of the study will be of great benefit to students, teachers, parents and educational administrator as well as the society.
The findings of the study will acquaint the students with the effects of economic hardship, parental background, school environment and early marriage to their education with the view to developing palliative measure against female student dropout.
The findings of the study will help teachers toadopt an approach that will enable them reach out to parents whose female children are having challenges in their education.
Furthermore parents will be aware of the factors highlighted and apply the best way they could address the issues over factors affecting girl-child education in secondary schools. The responsibility of the parents is to provide quality education and quantitative education for their children.
The findings of the study will help educational administrators to effectively reduce educational wastage, shortage of manpower as a result of female students drop out from schools.
The society through the findings of the study would help to reduce the increase of violence, crime and prostitution among female students. The findings of the study will also enhance the society at large to generally increase in social development and human capacity.
Scope of the Study
The scope of the study consists of the 22 public secondary schools in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State. The Local Government Area is under Obudu Educational Zone. The study examined the factors influencing Girl-Child Education in Yala Local Government Area of Cross River State, which includes socio-economic factors, parental attitude, early marriage and high illiteracy.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
- How does parents’ poor socio-economic status affects girl-child participation in secondary education in Yala Local Government Area?
- How does the attitude of parents towards girl-child education affects their educational achievement in secondary schools in Yala L.G.A?
- How does early marriage affects girl-child participation in secondary education in Yala Local Government Area?
How does high illiteracy rate of parents affects girl-child participation in secondary education?