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PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING MATERNAL MORTALITY OF WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN EBONYI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING MATERNAL MORTALITY OF WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN EBONYI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

Abstract

The research was carried out to identify the factors influencing maternal mortality rate in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The purpose of the study was to determine the level of education, cultural practices, age, religion, poverty and malnutrition as factors influencing maternal mortality. The cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Relevant literature on the concepts, causes, implications, control and prevention of maternal mortality were reviewed for the study. The population of the study comprised of all mothers of childbearing age in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The data were collected using questionnaire and were analyzed by the use of percentages as were presented in tables. From the findings it was revealed that poverty (68.2%) as a factor cultural practices like female circumcision (32.9%) and early marriage (29.4%), illiteracy (61.2%) age (18-25 -50.6%) 36-45-23.5%) were seen as some of the major factors influencing maternal mortality in Ebonyi Local Government. Recommendations were put forward to help improve the health of mothers which include the provision of health education on the need for ante-natal services, safe delivery procedure for midwives, safe motherhood initiative programmes and also the need for family planning services and finally the provision of health facilities and professional health workers in the remote areas.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Maternal mortality is the death of women of child bearing age while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes. Therefore maternal death is a tragedy. Many children today have been rendered motherless which have warranted to having a single parents the husbands or fathers being widowers. When such ugly incidence occurs, the children are deprived of maternal care which affect adversely both their physiological and psychological development.

Hoj L. (2003), defined maternal mortality as a death of either a pregnant woman or death of woman within 42 days of delivery, miscarriage, termination or ectopic pregnancy providing the death is associated with pregnancy or its treatment. To facilitate the identification of maternal deaths in circumstances in which cause of death attribute a new category has been introduced: Nair, (2015), defined pregnancy related death as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy irrespective of the cause of death.

The International Federation of Gynecologist and Obstetricians (2005) defined maternal death as one occurring during pregnancy or labour within 42 days after delivery or abortion. The world Heath Organization (WHO) as accessed in June, 2016 estimated that about 246,000 women die every year from pregnancy related causes a rate of 210 deaths per 100,000 life birth. This maternal death due to associated causes and maternal condition (pregnancy) is regarded as secondary cause of death. For example; it is well known fact that cardiac diseases maybe aggravated by pregnancy and pregnant patient who has cardiac diseases and die will be grouped under associated cause.

It is also important to note that the world mortality rate has declined to 45% since 1996 but still 800 women die everyday from pregnancy, or childbirth related causes (WHO, 2000). But according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNPF) (2010) this is equivalent to about one woman in every two minutes and for every woman who dies, 20 or 30 of them encounter complications with serious or long-lasting consequences. Most of these deaths and injuries are entirely preventable.

The United Nation Population Fund (UNPF) (2013) also estimated that 289,000 women died of pregnancy or child birth related causes. These causes range from severe bleeding to obstructed labour all of which have highly effective interventions. As women have gained access to family planning and skilled Birth Attendant with backup emergency obstetric care, the global maternal mortality ratio has fallen down to 246 maternal deaths per 100,000 live birth in 2005 and in 2013 it has reduced to 210 deaths per 100,000 of which many countries halved their maternal death rate in the last ten (10) years.

World-wide mortality rate have been decreasing in modern ages. High rates still exist particularly in impoverished communities with over 85% living in Africa and southern Asia. The effect of mother’s death result in a vulnerable families and their infants if they survive childbirth are more likely to die before reaching their second birthday. The maternal mortality has implication not only to the family and community, but also to the nation as well.

With high incidence of maternal mortality, a nation is regarded as a developing country. It is obvious that some women are liable to maternal mortality than others in Nigeria. The women who are rural dwellers are less privileged and thus could be more liable to maternal mortality. They are often being subjected to the tender mercies of Traditional Birth Attendants who lack the basic knowledge of the physiology of pregnancy. The world Health organization in 2001 cited that the life time risk of material deaths of a woman in a developed country is 1:1800; in Africa it is 1:16, in Asia it is 1:65 and in Latin America it is 1:30.

Meanwhile, Nigeria is also working towards the improvement of maternal health through the primary healthcare components of maternal and child Health. The purposes of the objectives of this maternal and child Heath services are to make sure that women remain healthy throughout their pregnancy. Also is to detect mothers at risk and to give prompt attention to avoid any complications during pregnancy, labour and puerperium (Lucas and Gilles, 2004).

This study is therefore focused on the factors influencing maternal mortality in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. It was discovered by WHO in 2001 that factors such as age parity access to resources, income level and also educational status among others influenced maternal mortality. Ebonyi Local Government Area is majorly inhabited by the rural dwellers of Ishieke and Nkaleke communities. Majority of the dwellers are farmers, mini-traders and few civil servants. About 80% of the populace are educated, though their level of education will help in providing good information for this study regarding maternal mortality.

Just like any other rural areas and town, women of Ebonyi Local Government Area commonly experience physiological and psychological changes during pregnancy, because the pregnancy may be accompanied with complication, thus pregnant women are prone to risk. It therefore means that the care of pregnant woman deserves the highest priority in every community especially in Ishieke and Nkaleke communities of Ebonyi Local Government Area where the present study is to be conducted.

PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING MATERNAL MORTALITY OF WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN EBONYI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

1.2. Statement of Problem

Approximately 246 women die from pregnancy-related causes annually and almost all (99%) these maternal deaths occur in developing nations (WHO, 2016). Less than one percent of these deaths occur in developed countries demonstrating that they could be avoided if resources and services were available. The National Health Service provides complete maternity care for all child-bearing women. Mothers are healthier and better nourished, and education and other social conditions steadily improve.

Despite the introduction of Safe-motherhood Initiative in the health sector, maternal mortality was still high discouraging the purpose of the initiatives. Mothers or women of child-bearing age in Ishieke and Nkaleke communities of Ebonyi Local Government Area are seriously involved in the problem and the range is not known. Therefore this study is necessary to find out the factors influencing maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age in Ebonyi Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to determine the factor influencing maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age in Ebonyi Local Government Area. Specifically the study seeks to:

  • Determined the level of education as a factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine cultural practices as factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine age as a factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine religion as a factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine poverty as a factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine accessibility to hospitals as a factor influencing maternal mortality.
  • Determine malnutrition as a factor influencing maternal mortality.

1.4   Significance of the Study

This study is significant for many reasons as it will provide information on the factors that influence maternal mortality in Ebonyi Local Government Area. Those who are going to benefit from this study include:

  • Health personnel/Doctors
  • Government and its agencies
  • Midwives and
  • Individuals especially mothers.

The study will help the health personnel and doctors to determine the factors responsible for high rate of maternal mortality and fashion out ways of tackling the problem to save life of mothers especially the child-bearing ages. The study will help the government to know the estimated population at risk and therefore make more provisions for health facilities and services.

The midwives or caregivers are given the foresight to initiate ways of handling those involved during pregnancy and childbirth.

 It is also useful to individuals especially mothers of reproductive age who may want to know the causes of maternal mortality.

1.5   Scope of the Study

This research study is limited to only mothers or women of child-bearing age the nurses, obstetricians and gynecologists in Ebonyi Local Government Area.

Respondents shall be all child-bearing mothers regardless of their age and marital status. The research will not be carried out in all ramifications factors influencing high maternal mortality rate as a whole but will be restricted.

1.6   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  • What is the influence of poverty on maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age?
  • What is the influence of poor healthcare on maternal mortality rate in women of child-bearing age?
  • What is the influence of poor road network and unskilled healthcare personnel on maternal mortality rate in women of child-bearing age?
  • What is the influence of socio-economic and cultural practices on maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age?
  • What is the influence of ignorance, level of education on maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age?
  • What is the influence of age, access to resources and income level on maternal mortality in women of child-bearing age?

1.7   Research Hypotheses

        For the effective and comprehensive study of this research, the following hypotheses will be specifically tested:

  • Poverty cannot necessary affect the increase in the maternal mortality rate.
  • Poor healthcare cannot necessary affect the increase on high maternal mortality.
  • Relationship between poor road and unskilled healthcare personnel cannot necessary affect the increase in maternal mortality.
  • Socio-economic and cultural factors cannot necessary affect the increase in maternal mortality.
  • The level of education cannot have any influence on maternal mortality.

The socio-demographic factors such as age, access to resources and income level cannot necessary affect the increase on maternal mortality.

PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS INFLUENCING MATERNAL MORTALITY OF WOMEN OF CHILD BEARING AGE IN EBONYI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EBONYI STATE

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