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This study was on influence of environmental factors in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools, in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The purpose of this study was to examine the environmental factors that hinder teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools. Four research questions guided this study. Descriptive survey design was adopted in the study. The population of this study comprised sixteen thousand eight hundred and twenty (16,820) students and one thousand seven hundred(1,700) teachers in twenty one (21) public secondary schools in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.  Simple random sampling was used in selecting, Eleven (11) schools. And from each school, Twenty seven (27) students  and three (3) teachers Were also selected which gives the sample size of three hundred and thirty (330) respondents .Data were collected using a structured questionnaire while mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and chi-square to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. From the data analysis, it was discovered that over –population of the classroom, inadequate classroom management, location of the school, and improper teaching aids were among the factors that influence our environment in teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools. Recommendations were provided in line with the findings, like the school board should ensure that number of the students in the classroom as Appropriate for effective learning and control.




Background to the Study

Every child born into the society is shaped by two major factors; genetic and environmental factors. Whereas no one has any direct control over the genetic traits, which can be done to enhance the child’s environment for its optimum growth and development. Thus the richer the child’s environment, the better the child’s chances of developing faster, physically, emotionally, intellectually and educationally. This development are made possible through teaching and learning of chemistry and other subjects, as the case may be(Adewale,2007)

Chemistry as a subject has been recognized as a core subject in schools by (national policy on education 2014). It is a subject that is taught in senior secondary schools, college of education, polytechnic and even in university level. The subject is being taken in public examination like West Africa Examination Council (WAEC), General Certificate of Education (GCE), National Examination Council (NECO), Joint Administration Matriculation Examination (Jamb), among others.

When you hear the word chemistry; there are likely certain images that come to your mind, molecules, test-tube, the periodic table among others. But chemistry is so much more than these things! Infant chemistry is known as the central science because it touches all other natural science likes Biology, physics, geology and more. The term chemistry according to Igwe, (2014) is the study of non-living substances and their characteristics or properties that shows when they are subjected to increase temperature, increase pressure, abnormal contact and extend cold etcetera. It is the study of the structure of substance, how they react when combine or in contact with one another and how they behave under different condition (Hornby, 2005). Similarly, Helmenstin, (2010), added that chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them.

In another development, the student environment goes beyond the home. It includes the school, the peer group the teacher, the classrooms and the community where the school is situated (Effiong and Afangideh 2007). Moreover Achilike (2014). Stated that nurture has a vital roles to play in a child than nature, that is ,nurture is  our environment, which determine the achievement of the child in any society.

Environment is defined as global biological, physical system and endowments on which man depends for existence and well being which he can only modify with impunity within certain limits (Afukwa, 2016). Also it is the surrounding in which we live (Bhatia, 2013). It is a life-sustaining system in which various living beings like animals including man, birds; insect, micro-organism and non-living beings like air, water and soil are inter-related. Duro  (2002) pointed out that the growth and development are the interactions of the influences of environment, maturation and learning. He further stated that interaction and the result of such interaction are the interest to teachers and those who are concerned with education. Teaching it self is an act of imparting knowledge or information. Balogun, (2001), is of the opinion that teaching is highly skilled professional activity which involves curriculum design of information and knowledge through a diversified teaching strategy and the use of variety of instructional act to get the message across to the learner. The complexity of teaching by implication denotes that it should not be an all comers game (Onwuegbu, 2003).

The prospective teachers should be exposed to the ample and enormous theoretical and practical preparation before being sent to the classroom to teach. Uguru (2003) state that for teaching and  need to adequately prepare prospective teachers for effective and efficient teaching, there should be   need for  teachers education programme to be recommended in addition to theoretical facts and principles that  prospective teachers be exposed to observation of teaching, micro teaching and teaching practice in secondary schools.

Essentially school administrators should take into consideration conducive environment for effective teaching

King and Morans, (2004). Asserted that excessive noise seems to effect handicapped students more than normal students, And Lezail, (2003). indicated that unwanted noise reduced human energy and efficiency, their findings also confirmed that unwanted noise can effects mental and emotional health of teachers and students. To reinforce the idea of noise as the environmental factors that affect teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary school. Reid (2004), Conducted a study to determine the minimum acoustical separation necessary to permit a group or an individual teacher to work effectively.

They found that school building would be completely acceptable for teaching and learning if suit with noise reductions between areas of 18 and 20 decibels, with classroom near optimum reverberation periods and articulation indexes of ones. Types of noise as well as the level of noise can affect learner attempted to determine at what point and to what degrees noise interruption hampers the process of education. In this study Flanders interaction analysis was utilized to measure patterns of verbal interactions between teachers and students. He concluded that excessive noise has a direct learning on student’s attentions and progress. Hence when a said teacher is not groomed or properly groomed in the process and practice of teaching, the choice of teaching method becomes unconscious activity. Okorie, (2004) in his own contribution, lamented on the important of instructional material or aids, the lesson objectives, evaluation and closure, that above skills will constitute noise and hence influences learning condition.

Eya (2005), saw physical environment in the classroom as something that can equally result to noise in the classroom setting, that should plant and indeed the educational planners must take into consideration certain factors for the citing of any school. Hence schools are better sorted when they are cited in a quiet than a seduced environment where noise is limited to a reasonable degree.

Okoire, (2004), asserted and attributed teacher pupils students ratio that most classes are made up of 60 pupils or students and 70 as the case may be. That this situation arose out of the government design and inability to provide adequate accommodation to take care of the situation, that this said situation constitute noise in teaching chemistry.

Nevertheless, Omebe, (2006), agree that the environment under which a child is nurtured plays major part in his or her development even of the prenatal stages of life. Beside, inadequate cares, hostile inter-relationship in the place of a child’s immediate environment most times create a state of anxiety and emotional distress I the child, which also impact greatly on the rest of the child’s future life.

From the foregoing, many chemistry teachers in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State, face a lot of challenges in teaching of chemistry in secondary schools as a result of influence of environmental factors, such as pollution inform of noise in the classroom, over population of students, spreading of all kinds of infirmities, rioting a violence and inappropriate infrastructure. In a extension, students too are insure, their attendance to school is poor. These affect their participation in classroom teaching and learning process among others. The children (students) respond by developing tension, frustration, aggression, anger and hatred towards their teachers because of environmental challenges. Hence teachers and students are psychologically disturbed, when they are in classroom as a result, they cannot do well in the school activities.


For a successful execution of the progressive academic programme, and for the students to reach and maintain a high academic standard, the environment has to be such that it can find itself equal to these challenges. It is against this background that the researcher wish to carry out a study on the influence of environmental factors that affect teaching of chemistry in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

 Statement of the Problems

Teaching and learning of chemistry are in vogue in secondary schools, learners  assimilates the content of teaching as given by the chemistry teachers. Environment which learning and teaching takes place affects the personality, cognition, mode of contribution and interaction, comportment, achievement status and social class during learning. Schools play great role in shaping the ability of the students .To make chemistry concepts comprehensive to students, teachers and explain concept in a typical manner. The environment of the school must be considered.

However teaching and learning of chemistry are influenced by environmental factors which develop harm to the educational system. The aim  o f this study if put in  question, therefore is what are the environmental factors that influence  teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Onicha Local government Area of Ebonyi State.

 The Purpose of the Study

  1. To examine how overpopulation as an aspect of school environmental factor can influence the teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools in Onicha Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.
  2. Investigate how location of the school environment can influence the teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.
  3. To identify how teaching aid as an aspect of school environmental factor can influence the teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.
  4. To ascertain how classroom environment the influence teaching and learning of chemistry in secondary schools.


Significance of the Study

The study is significant to the following group government teachers, students, secondary education board, curriculum planner and the policymaker.

The study will help teachers to know their duties in their area of teaching professions and to find out the factors that are responsible for environmental hazard in the teaching in order to proffer preventive measures.

This study will help students to know the merit and demerit of con ducive environment in learning as a result of environmental influences that affect their studies.

The study will help secondary education board to develop a good style of schools management and ways of controlling these factors that affect the teaching of chemistry in secondary schools negatively.

This study will also enhance curriculum planners to know the needs of the students, relevant instructional materials that will be of a helping hand in the areas of studies. Optimistically, the field would uphold the study as an advancement to reckon with as far as teaching and learning is concerning.

Moreover, the policy makers on education would also find this work as a veritable instrument in their hands to help look properly into the policies and implementation of our education scheme.

Finally, this study can serve as a framework to the new researcher that will have interest in the same or similar discipline



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