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Background to the Study

Nigeria has realized the importance of functional education for the good on services of mankind.  this realization is evidenced in the national policy on education (Frn,2004), where it is emphasized that, the overall philosophy of education in Nigeria among others should be directed to building a strong, united and self reliant nation by educational activities being geared towards scientific and technological progress. In the developing world, educational policy are faced with a major task, how to create chances for success for all children and their citizenry as a whole. it is essential to overcome the problem of illiteracy , school failure and to improve the intellectual capacities of the students.

Education is the process of teaching, training and learning especially in schools or colleges to improve knowledge and develop skills. Paulson –Ellis and White Church in (Eze, 2000) stated that education is the imparting and acquisition of knowledge designed to develop a broad range of abilities, knowledge and skills for general application. Education is concomitant with life, this is because there is education in virtually all facets of life, one continues to learn as long as he lives, that is, education is a continuous process. Okeke (2004) opined that, “available literature on development of education attests to the fact that education has been influenced by great thinkers, computer literates, laws, forms of government, mode of social life. a renowned Nigerian educationist and one time minister of education, Fafunwa defined education as an aggregate of all the process by which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behavior of positive  value in the society in which we live.

Education has great potentials for the transformation of the individuals and societies; it has become the major yardstick for measuring progress, civilization and development of mankind in any organized society. Most government hence have an abiding faith in the efficacy of education as an instrument for social reconstruction and economic development (Niles & harries Bowlbey, 2003). However, besides teaching methods and facilities, learning attitudes of learners are also essential factors to determine the instructional effectiveness. If instructor can identify learners’ attitude, their instructional effectiveness would be improved easily.

In Nigeria, just like any other developing countries, education is considered to be a way of escape from poverty, illiteracy and underdevelopment. Improved academic performance among student in the schools is therefore paramount to students in other to navigate the currents of underdevelopment. Everyone is therefore conscious of the benefits derivable from investment in education (Oghenekohwo, 2008). Thus, failure in academic performance usually brings untold hardship and frustration to the individual concerned. Unfortunately, the quality of secondary education in Nigeria is under threat because students are witnessing an unprecedented player influencing student’s achievement, holding the key to sealing the gap in student’s achievement. Studies have consistently shown that teacher quality whether measured by content, experience, training and credentials or general intellectual skills are strongly related to student achievement (Hammond, 2000 and Anderson, 1991). kimberly (2009) stated that teachers must be knowledgeable in their area of study. In truth, if a teacher is not well enlightened in his subject, then the hope of effectiveness goes right out the window.

The world is fast becoming a global village due to the inter-connectivity that exist between countries, organizations, government and other bodies as a result of development in information and communication technology (ICT). According to Olagunfu (2005), information technology is the integration  of computer technology mainly in the form of internet and information management. It provide opportunities  for  users  to handle texts and images , numbers and graphs, sound and music as well as to enable them process information in the following ways : storage and analyzing , presenting,  organization and retrieving of information.

In other words, access to information and communication is increased through computer basic technologies. A network of interconnectivity is known as the internet. World Bank (2007), stated that the internet is the powerful tool for improving the efficiency and quality of a wide range of public services especially education and health. The internet is resource where teacher s and students can access outstanding and current education-related   books, journals, magazines, international conferences, workshops, invitations as well as information on research focus and research grants. Computer is any device that is capable accepting, storing and processing data and giving result out inform of information in a specified format.

Akukwe[2003] defined computer as an electronic device that is capable accepting , storing and processing data as well as outputting the result by following a set of instructions called : a program: as well as an electro-mechanical information. Talabi ( 2003), define computer as an electric piece of equipment design to automatically accept input , stored the data, manipulate them and produced output under the direction of a detailed step by step stored instructions called a program.

The 21st century has been rightly referred to as the information age because a high percentage of all jobs will involve information processing. Therefore, if our student must be prepared for work, then they must embrace the computer which is the powerful tool for information handling. computer has become vital factor in our society today, not only in business, but the entertainment industry as well. Computers are used for editing films and have reduced the cost of making movies it also reduced the number of actors and production crew required. in business , computer track stock levels, the customer  balance before transactions are allowed , transfer funds electronically , in home , tiny computer embedded in electronic circuit of must appliance regulate there operations, indoor temperature , operate home security system, tell the time program video  cassette  video CD  DVD players. Computers programs or applications exist to aid every level of education, teach simple addition and calculus. educators used computer to track grades and prepare note, with there computer controlled projection union, they can add graphics, sound and animation to their not .the scientific study of the theory and practice off data and information process and knowledge of the computer and its functions is referred as computer science because computer are not only for storage device and process unit but also help students in excellent communication media.

They are the means to access the internet and also an effective audio- visual media .Computer can be used to access a vast knowledge based on research for information over the internet means of documenting the back bone management software that are part of computer system which helps the students as a means of managing large amount of data .

In most junior secondary schools, it has been noticed that a large proportion of students fail computer science in both their internal and external examination and as a result, they hardly attain the acceptable level of good performance in their results, (French 1992). It has been claimed that the stumbling block has always being their inability to master and pass computer. Unlike other courses because of the internet difficulties associated with the learning of the subject, computer science is now being explored at all field of life because the computer knowledge is universal and varied.

In the field of research, engineering, business, medicine, communication, weather forecasting, education, finance, art, healthcare delivery, and indeed most areas of human activities, the computer is an indispensable tool. The knowledge of the computer and the ability to use the computer has become so important and widespread that it has come to be an integral part of education literacy. Yet computer science education and literacy are lacking among many of our young men and women today. It is in recognition of the part played by computer science education in the economy of a state that various programs aimed at improving computer education in the country. Some of the programmes for secondary schools teachers were needed, supplying of computers to different schools in the country and construction of laboratory structures where computer will be stored and learnt.

Schools have no worth without students; students are most essential assets for any educational institution. The social and economic development of the country is directly linked with student’s academic performance in computer science. the students performance (academic achievement in computer  plays an important role in producing the best quality graduates who will become great leader and man power for the country thus responsible for the country’s economic and social development ,(ali,2009) .

Academic performance has been described as the  school standing of a student at a given moment . however  academic attainment in secondary school of learning can be   an outcome of two factors ,the first is the individual attributes ,that is, each students  unique combination of socio-economic factors and stability .the secondary factor is located in the sort of the school attended, that is, the system of education and patterns of imparting knowledge that are organized within schools. in other words, they attainment of national objectives for the adequate preparation of students for their examination and achievement of educational objectives depend largely on teachers. the health status of students which could also be traceable to parental socio-economic background can be another factor that can affect the academic performance of the students .Adewale,(2002), has reported that in a rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problem are prevalent ,students academic performance is greatly hindered.

The effect of computer science on the society has permeated even in the field of education. the effect to improve secondary school students academic performance in computer science have led educationalist and psychologist to continue to search for personnel and environmental variable that could be manipulated in favor of academic gains. Thus, a sound computer education involving practical will help the students to develop some skills needed to solve their problems, sustain their interest in computer science education to their own quota and man power for the development given to them.

Nevertheless, computer science seems to be difficult to the secondary school students who are not very familiar with computer or who have never used it or even see it. Some students who have even seen the computer have a narrow or even wrong notion of what it can do. it is therefore very necessary to teach and educate our young boys and girls on computer science especially in our secondary schools. To prepare the young ones for the new demands of modern technological world, there is need to improve the computer science knowledge, applications and skills of the students. Many factors seem to be attributed to be part of the problems that students encounter in the learning of computer science. these according to Okorie (2000) emphasized the, students lack interest in learning computer science simply because the tools or equipments used in teaching students are not provided and these includes; lack of qualified teachers, poor learning environment, lack of instructional materials, socio-economic status of parents among others. Based on the above premises, the researcher therefore spurred into finding out the factors that affects students’ performance in learning of computer science in junior secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.


Statement of the Problems 

The study of computer is very important for the technological growth of any country. In view of its importance; computer science education should be properly taught and learnt, unfortunately this is not so because of unqualified teachers, lack of instructional materials, socio-economic status of parents, health status of the students and many other factors which affects students performance in the subject. The background to the study has revealed that students perform very poorly in computer science in secondary schools in Ishielu local government area. It could be that there is little or no impact of computer education in the secondary schools throughout Ishielu local government area. The problem of this study therefore is what are factors that affect students’ performance in computer science education in Ishielu Local Government Area.

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to identify the factors influencing student performance in computer science education in junior secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area in Ebonyi State. Specifically, this study sought to find if:

  1. Instructional materials affect students’ performance.
  2. If teaching methods influence students performance in junior secondary school class
  3. If refresher courses for teachers influence students performance.
  4. If the socio-economic status of parents affects students performance.
  5. If the health status of the students affects their academic performance.


Significance of the Study

The results of the findings will be beneficial to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, administrators and the government.

  1. The students: the result of this study would serve as a very useful source of information to all the students concerned with computer science education generally .it would also help the students to discovered how they contributed towards the factors that affect their performances and it would help them to change from their obnoxious ways of behavior that affect computer science adversely.
  2. The teachers: the result of the study would help the teachers to know the areas they need extra effort for maintaining effective teaching and learning of computer science and improve such situations.

3the school administrators: the administrators from the result of the funding will know those areas that they contributed to ineffective teaching and learning of computer science education and would work towards improving the situation.

  1. The government :the funding of the study would help the state government to employ qualified teaching of computer science in our schools .the finding of the study will also help the state government to know the factors affecting the students performance in junior secondary schools in Ishielu local government of Ebonyi state.  Such knowledge would help the government to see the need for the provision of infrastructures and instructional materials to improve the teaching and learning of computer science education in our schools.
  2. The curriculum planners: the result the study will also help the curriculum planners, the ministry of education and secondary education board to develop a good style of school management and ways of controlling these factors that influence students performance in computer science education in secondary schools. The result of this research will equally help policy makers on education to properly look into the policies and implementation of our educational system.

Scope of the Study

The study is limited to identifying the factors influencing the performance of computer science students in junior secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study is also designed to examine how the following variables, instructional materials, teaching method, refresher courses for teacher, socio-economic status of parents and health status of the students affect students performance in computer science e education. The extend of these factors and the way of controlling them.

Research questions

The following research questions were formulated to guild the study;

  1. How does the instructional material influence teaching of computer science in secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area
  2. Does teaching method affect the teaching of computer science education in secondary schools in Ishielu local government area
  3. How does refresher courses for teachers influence,the teaching and learning of computer science in Ishielu local government area
  4. How does the socio –economic status of parents influence the teaching of computer science in Ishielu Local Government Area?
  5. Does the health status of the students affect the teaching and learning of computer science in secondary schools in Ishielu Local Government Area?


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