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PROJECT TOPIC- Factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by secondary school leavers (graduates) in Ijumu Local Government Area of Kogi state

PROJECT TOPIC- Factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by secondary school leavers (graduates) in Ijumu Local Government  Area of Kogi state


This study was carried out to identify the factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by the secondary school leavers in Ijumu Local Government Area of Kogi state. The study was necessary because no career or occupation can survive without youths getting into it. Survey design was used in the study. Structured questionnaire was constructed and face validated by 3 experts. Four sections of the research questions were developed in agreement with what the research sought to find out. The questionnaire was used to collect data from 300 respondents randomly selected from a population of 1,500. The data collected were analyzed using frequency counts and arithmetic mean. Major findings from the study include. Farming is not of inputs and unstable prices of interest, poor social amenities in the villages and inadequate training affect and reduce youths’ choice of Agricultural Careers. It was recommended that government should review agricultural policies in order to make it more functional. Farm inputs to be improved to enable youths stay and settle down in the villages for agricultural jobs.



Background to the Study

The history of agricultural careers is as old as the account of God’s creation of mankind. Immediately after the creation of man, God planted the Garden of Eden and put the man into the garden to dress and keep it (Genesis 2:8). The purpose was for man to learn and take agriculture as a career. A closer look at the history of man indicated that man’s effort to survive in his environment has been associated with agricultural activities, jobs and careers.

Okorie (2001) said that the history of agricultural careers is synonymous with man’s efforts to survive in his environment. He stressed further that agricultural careers provide man with basic necessities of life- food, shelter and clothing. Agriculture has been explained by Egbe (2003) as a science, an art, an industry, a business, a profession and an occupation in the production of crops and animals.

According to him, agriculture is explained as profession and occupation because it prepares an individual to be proficient and then choose career from it. According to Omebe (2005) Career refers to a process, extending over almost the entire life span, through which the person develops the capacity for and engages in work as part of his total life style. From this definition, career and its development is seen as part of human growth and development.

It is a continuous process of making work related decisions. Career leads to engagement in an occupation and culminate in all experiences gained while holding the job as well as after one retires from the work. To support the above, Okonkwo (2006) said that a career is the pattern of work and work-related activities that develop throughout a life-time. It includes the job or series of jobs a person has until retirement.

According to Okorie (2001), Career opportunities in agriculture include crop production, Crop protection, crop processing, animal production, drug production, farm produce distribution, teaching, researching, extension services, soil management and analysis, banking and finance, inputs supplying, and a lot of jobs available in agro-allied industries. Infact, numerous career opportunities abound in agriculture for youths to choose.

But choosing a career may be influenced by certain variables or factors. Longman Dictionary of contemporary English (1998) defines factor thus: Factor is any of the forces, conditions, influences, etc, that act with others to bring about a result. This definition shows that anything man does is guided by certain forces, conditions and influences. Therefore career choices must be as a result of many factors working together.

Omebe and Mgboro (2002) believe that the mind is made up of many almost unrelated functions called factors. These factors exert on the mind to influence it to make a choice in all aspects of life including career choice of youths. Career choices vary greatly in type of work involved and the manner they influence a person’s life. Most people build a career to help them satisfy certain goals, such as earning a living, raising their ego, having a place in the society and helping other people.

Career choice should follow a planned process based on ones ability interests, goals, aptitude and skills. Unfortunately, most youths, particularly the illiterate ones do not follow a planned procedure of their careers before jumping into it. This is as a result of lack of career information and vocational guidance. Majority of the youths in the villages and even urban areas fail to believe the fact that adequate information, guidance and counseling are needed for a meaningful career choice. As a result of youthful exuberance, they abandon the career which fits them and jump into a different thing.

Lack of career information and the erroneous ideas and impression held by people about some careers are corrected and disabused when adequate career information are provided. For example, many youths who are talented in agricultural careers have often been found to reject them because of the misconception people have about those careers. Many youths prefer doing other jobs more degrading rather than settling down for agriculture.

Youth is defined by Mgboro (2004) as a particular stage between adolescence and adulthood that emerged because of conditions in postindustrial society. In this study, youth is taken or seen to be able bodied young man or woman.

PROJECT TOPIC- Factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by secondary school leavers (graduates) in Ijumu Local Government  Area of Kogi state

Statement of the Problem

 The problem necessitating this research is that the scarcity of food which is the basic necessity of life is felt everywhere in the society. People are starving and poverty level is rising daily. Nnoka and Ndupu (2002) observed that lack of food may lead to starvation, if starvation is prolonged it may gradually lead to death. This is an indication that food production is on the decline. A pointer or signal that few hands are now engaged in farming and other agricultural activities. If the trend is allowed to continue, there will be acute shortage of food for the teaming Nigerian population. The rate of unemployed youths will sky-rocket and crime rate in the society will be uncontrollable.

Recently, it was observed that youths are shunning agricultural careers. The drift of able bodied young people from farming in the villages to do other activities in the cities is a strong indication that there is mass exodus of youths from agricultural careers. Olaitan and Mama (2001) opined that students believe that the School farm is not relevant to their success. They said youths believe that developing interest in farming is a waste of precious time that could have been used for more promising things. It is therefore necessary to find out those factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by the youths so that youths could be motivated to choose and stay in agricultural careers.    

Purpose of the Study

       The purpose of the study is to determine the factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by youths of Ijumu L.G.A. of Kogi State.

Specifically it sought to:

  1. Ascertain the extent training influence choice of agricultural careers.
  2. Determine the extent interest influence choice of agricultural careers.
  3. Find out the influence of economic returns to agriculture on choice of its careers.
  4. Assess the influence of social appraisal of farmers by the public on choice of its careers.

Significance of the Study

       The study will benefit school leavers, teachers, stakeholders of agricultural programmes and the general public. The school leavers will get information from the study on the needs to choose agricultural careers, be employed and improve their economy.

       Agricultural science teachers will get information from the study on the causes for low choice of agricultural careers. This will make them adjust their teaching and make agricultural science attractive.

       Information from this work will help the stakeholders of agricultural programme adjust the programme. It will guide the curriculum planners to restructure the agricultural science syllabus.

Research Questions

  1. What are the impact of training on the choice of agricultural careers?.
  2. What are the effects of interest on the choices of agricultural careers by youths?
  3. What are influences of economic returns on the choice of agricultural careers?
  4. How does social appraisal of farmers affect choice of agricultural careers by youths?

Scope of the Study

       This study covered the factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by youths of Ijumu L.G.A. of Kogi State.It specifically covered effects of Economic returns, interest, training and social appraisal of farmers on choice of agricultural jobs. It used youths and adult farmers in the area. The area is made up of five Autonomous communities, namely; Ayere,Ogidi, Ogale, Aduge and Iyara. The study did not use all the youths and adult farmers in the area due to time and financial constrains.

PROJECT TOPIC- Factors that limit choice of agricultural careers by secondary school leavers (graduates) in Ijumu Local Government  Area of Kogi state

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