PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN EDO STATE
The study focused on the Factors Militating against Effective Teaching and Learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State. Four specific objectives and corresponding research questions guided the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised 4,285 teachers and students in the twenty two junior secondary schools. The sample of the study consisted of 200 teachers and students randomly drawn using simple random sampling technique Structured questionnaire was used as an instrument for data collection and was validated by three experts, two from Business Education Department and one from Science Education all in Ebonyi State University. An overall reliability co-efficient of 0.75 was obtained. The data was analyzed using simple statistical mean. Results from the data analyzed showed that:inadequate training of teachers towards the use of ICT militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies, secondlyinadequate teaching method militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies. Thirdly inadequate funding of Business Education militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies and that lack of equipment maintenance militate against teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.Based on the findings the study recommended that: school management should implement and effectively adopt in-services training of ICT learning for teachers, teachers should undergo effective training in the utilization of different teaching method to educate students, and teachers and school management should absolutely maintenance the available equipment for teaching and learning purposes. Finally, conclusion and suggestions for further studies were drawn.
Background to the Study
Education is widely perceived and acknowledged as an instrument per excellence for the development of the society. The priority of education as a veritable tool for development is predicted on its relevance to the needs, problems and aspirations of human society. Indeed, throughout history, societies developed and underdeveloped, complex and noncomplex have used education as a relevant instrument for effecting desirable social, economic, political and technological changes, ( Obanya, 2014).
This trend no doubt has influenced the philosophy of education of many countries of the world including Nigeria (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2004). Education which involved transmission of knowledge is inline with teaching. Teaching as defined by Gagne (2014) is any interpersonal influence which may be exerted by somebody aimed at changing the ways in which other persons can or will behave. Teaching is perceived to be an art and a science (Ironogie, 2010).
As an art, it represents the traditional role of transmitting specific body of knowledge, beliefs, values, Skills etc, to the younger generation, in order to perpetuate the cultural heritage of the society. As a science, teaching can be seen as an organized knowledge which is applied to solve emerging problems. Since knowledge is organized, systematic, valid and reliable, the science of teaching amounts to organized instruction which places before the teacher, novel and unique challenges.
Learning is defined as “acquiring, through practice, patterns of behaviour that one has not previously carried on that is, learns through experiencing new ways of thinking, and feeling, (Blumende, 2011). And this pre-supposes that any human being placed in that environment can be taught to learn something. The achievements of an individual would be an outcome largely of his environment. That is, how the environment of an individual had been manipulated positive or negatively. Teaching is meant to promote’ learning.
Business studies is a unit of vocational and technical education. According to Ohiwerei (20015), this programme started late in Nigerian educational system. Vocational business studies started as commercial education about 1930 at Oshogbo in the then western region now Osun State with the establishment of clerical training centers that were needed in the office. By 1995 both government and privately owned day and evening business schools were established in various part of the country.
According to Esene and Ohiwerei (2005), business subjects have not been popular in Nigerian Secondary Schools because of the bias against vocational education. The public perception of business subjects, which form part of vocational education, is education for the school dropouts. This is further reinforced by the attitude of Nigerian parents who prefer the conventional grammar schools to business schools whose curricular were directed towards the training of secretarial and clerical personnel.
This erroneous impression was corrected by the release of the National Policy on Education. The Policy, which recommended the 6-3-3-4 educational systems, was instrumental to the inclusion of business subjects in the secondary school curriculum. the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 systems began in 1982 and brought many reforms into the educational system in Nigeria. At the junior secondary school level pre-vocational subjects were introduced to the curriculum while vocational education were introduced to the senior secondary level.
The focus of pre-vocational was to expose students at the junior secondary school level to the world of work through exploration. Such exposure will enable junior secondary school students make intelligent career choice and also intelligent consumption patterns. Among the pre-vocational subjects are practical Agriculture, Home economics, Introductory technology and Business Studies.
Business studies consist of aspects of Book-keeping, shorthand, typewriting, commerce, office practice and computer, which are integrated. The National Board for Technical Education, while supporting the integration reported: “The new concept of pre-vocational courses at the junior Secondary school level is different from the traditional one. For example, the business studies components transcend the narrow commercial knowledge, which restricted pupils to take one of typewriting, shorthand, accounting, economics, etc. for five years. The new approach emphasizes the integrated nature of business studies and includes modules of secretarial skills(i.e. shorthand and typewriting), accounting, economics, business methods, commerce etc.”
Ekpenyoung (1997) does not seem to agree that Business studies is integrated. He reports that integration has become the order of the day in Nigerian education curriculum design. Apart from the science and vocational education, where integration has had a reasonably long history, one now hears of integration in virtually all other disciplines, particularly at the lower level of education.
The now discarded Nigerian Certificates in Education (NCE) business and technical education curricula were all integrated in line with the JSS pre-vocational curricular development by the Federal Ministry of Education in association with the former Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Center (Federal Ministry of Education, 1985). As hinted above, the appeal for an integrated curriculum derives from CESAC’s original project on curriculum integration.
However, the wholesale adoption of this approach to curriculum design in the Nigerian educational system seems to give the impression that the approach is sacrosanct, that its basic assumption are easily understood by average classroom teachers, or that every so-called integration curriculum can actually qualify as such. in order to, develop and progress in business education there is the need to emphasize actual practical performance in business education.
In view of this therefore, the aspect of teaching and learning are affected by certain factors in the educational sector, such factors were highlighted by Okoro (2013) as: teachers inexperience to used information and communication technology in teaching of business studies, lack fund for the funding of business studies, lack of maintance of equipment, inadequate infrastructures and adopted teaching method used by the teachers in teaching of business studies.
Effiong (2005) stated that another problem inhibiting the development of business education in Nigeria is inadequate textbooks, workbooks and other teaching aids. While, textbooks and workbooks authored by Nigerians are surfacing in the market in area such as commerce, business methods, business management, accounting etc. books on information technology is hard to come by. On the other hand, Business educators and students suffer because of non-availability of digital technology and internet in their classroom. Students are supposed to be taught the use of digital and internet. It is unfortunate that even some of the business educators themselves can neither make use of these facilities nor teach with ICT as a result of lack knowledge over the used of information and communication technology in teaching.
PROJECT TOPIC- FACTORS MILITATING AGAINST EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF BUSINESS STUDIES IN OREDO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN EDO STATE
Statement of the Problem
The problem of effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Nigerian Secondary schools has become asensitive issue that needs urgent attention. It has been observed that the issue is affecting the performance of studentsin both internal and external examinations adversely. It has also been discovered that the poor academic performanceof students is related to the conventional lecture method used to teach them by the teachers.
This study therefore aims at investigating the effectiveness of discussion method on students’ achievement and retention in business Studies. many schools lack the essential infrastructures to enable them function as safe, efficient and effective schools. The vast majority, whether urban or rural, have no water, sanitation and electricity and these services needs to be addressed as a matter of urgency.
The physical state of classrooms is very poor, with floor full of holes, roofs and ceiling broken, overall, the fabric is in poor state of repairs/. Windows have no shutter enclosure, again making them open to intruders and vandalism. In some circumstances furniture is stolen and classrooms are used as toilet (FME, 2009). Consequence upon these are poor performance of students in their Junior WACE which emanates as a result of lack teaching facilities, poor method of teaching, poor funding of school system and lack of needed equipment, all these sort to investigation of factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Junior secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo.
Purpose of the Study
The main purposeof this study is to find out the factors militating against effective teaching and learning of business studiesin Junior secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo. Specifically the study sought to:
- Determine how inadequate training of teachers towards the use of ICT militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.
- Ascertain how inadequate teaching method militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.
- Examine how inadequate funding of Business education militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.
- Find out how lack of equipment maintenance militate against effective teaching and learning of Busines Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State.
Significance of the Study
This study like every other academic study will be of important to individuals and other groups of interest. The study will undoubtedly be of benefit to the educational policy makers, teachers training institutions, secondary school Business studies teachers and the academic community.
Educational policy makers will see the findings of this study as relevant because not only will it correct mistakes in the current Business Studies curriculum but also help during the reform of other subjects that has a business objective such as the current business education curriculum in order to achieve the aims of introducing these subjects in our secondary schools.
Business Studies teachers training institutions such as universities and colleges of educations will benefit from the findings of this study as it reveal their lapses on the training of Business studies teachers who will teach and interpret the junior secondary school studies curriculum to bring about the desired change in behavior of the learners.
Secondary school Business Studies teachers will see the findings of the study as relevant because it will reveal and remain them the aims of Business Studies in our schools, hence the need for them as teachers to contribute by putting in their best in the teaching of Business Studies to ascertain effective learning.
The academic community will benefit from the study as it will add to existing literature for researchers that may wish to further studies on business studies and it related areas.
Scope of the study
The study intends to cover factors militating against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Secondary schools. The overview of Business Studies. The study will be delimited to secondary teachers and students in Oredo Local Government Areas of Edo State.
The following research questions were made to elicit information from the respondents for the purpose of the study.
- How does inadequate training of teachers towards the use of ICT militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State?
- How does inadequate teaching method militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State?
- How does inadequate funding of Business education militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State?
How does lack of equipment maintenance militate against effective teaching and learning of Business Studies in Oredo Local Government Area in Edo State?