FACTORS THAT HINDER EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU
The continued decline in the teaching and learning of instrumental music in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu State has been of great concern to music educators. In trying to investigate the factors that hinder effective teaching and learning of instrumental music in Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu State, this study concentrated on the musical activities of teacher-learner relationships between 360 Junior Secondary II students and 11 music teachers in nine selected schools in the three educational zones of Enugu State, Nigeria. Employing the research instrument of the questionnaire in gathering data, the study found out that there were inadequate musical instruments; lack of qualified music teachers to teach the instruments; discouragement from parents, peer groups, and the general public; poor implementation of the curriculum; and poor motivational and appraisal tendencies right from the beginning.
The study, therefore, suggests that all manners of stakeholders in music should join hands to provide enough funds for the purchase of musical instruments, create a Music centre for each education zone, organize regular music concerts for schools and communities, upgrade and update the structure of the existing music syllabus so as to cater for teaching and learning of instrumental music in secondary schools, and encourage the teachers to attend seminars, conferences and workshops as a way of refreshing and updating themselves on what they studied.
1.1 Background of the Study
Instrumental music may be defined as the art of combining sounds that can be produced on instruments in a manner that is agreeable to the ear. Hornby, 2006:774) defines instrumental music as ‘a piece of music (usually popular music) in which only musical instruments are used with no singing’. About instrumental music, Nwafor (2003: 14) says that ‘this type of music does not involve singing. It is purely instrumental, often played for listening and appreciation’. Duru (1986:2) sees the term instrumental music as ‘a piece of music to be sounded on an instrument, as distinct from a piece to be sung’. Willi Apel, (1969:413) also sees instrumental music as ‘music performed on instruments, as opposed to music performed by voices (vocal or choral music)’.
Instrumental music comprises African instrumental music and Western instrumental music. There are two main types of instrumental music, namely: ensemble (chamber and orchestral music) and solo (piano, organ, lute, etc.). Chamber music according to Apel, (1969) is an Instrumental ensemble music performed by one player for each part, as opposed to orchestral music in which there are several players for each part.
According to the number of players (or parts), chamber music is classified as follows: trio (three players), quartet (four), quintet (five), sextet (six), septet
(seven), and octet (eight). String trios (quartet, etc.) are for stringed instruments only; if one of the strings is replaced by another instrument, names such as piano trio (piano and two strings) or horn quintet (horn and four strings) are used (p. 143). According to Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1981:216) Chamber music is ‘music suitable for a room, rather than a theatre or a large hall, now almost confined to music for strings with or without piano or winds’. In other hand, orchestral music is ‘music for a large company of musicians (strings, woodwinds, brasses, and percussion) playing together under a onductor’- Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary (1981:926). Solo (piano, organ, lute, etc) is a piece of musical instrument performed by one person whether accompanied or unaccompanied. Solo according to Apel (1969): Solo
(1) A piece executed by one performer, either alone (piano solo; violin solo; e.g., Bach’s sonatas for violin solo), or with accompaniment by piano, organ, orchestra, etc.
(2) In orchestral scores, a passage intended to stand out.
(3) In concertos, designation for the soloist, in distinction from the orchestra (tutti).
(4) In the early concerto (Bach, Handel), the orchestral part for passages to be played senza ripieni (p. 787). Instrumental music is one aspect of music that helps students appreciate music through active to a career in music. Instrumental music is an aid to perform service in public like concerts, parades, and other functions. It helps students maintain the good spirit they have developed towards instruments, and develop the skill and technical ability leading to increased facilities, and develop them towards self reliance. It also provides a means of recreation, pleasure and good use of leisure time. Instrumental music is for enhancement of music education. Whenever it is time to play any instrument whether Western or African instrument, it lifts up the students’
morale. Instrumental music creates an atmosphere of fun, interaction, and excitement.
This is more reason why people are naturally drawn to it. If this ability is nurtured, instrumental music will provide a lifetime of enjoyment, and creativity
for our students. Music entertainment tends to set the mind free from problems. It may be in terms of palliative, escapism and when people are entertained with musical instruments, it provides patients with mental stability. So, it serves as a curative measure. According to Stewart (2005), It was not one of Audrey Walker’s better days, she was feeling a little queasy and…. “I am sitting there with all these thoughts in my mind about the chemo when I hear this beautiful music. The melody was just so soothing”, she said. At first Walker thought it was the radio. Then she noticed a woman in the treatment room who was playing a hand – held harp. The melodic tones enveloped and calmed her. As chemotherapy drugs flowed into her body, she closed her eyes…. There is increasing interest in the role music can play in helping lessen stress and anxiety and even improve medical outcomes (p. 13).
Studying the link between reading music and playing the piano is very essential. It makes students have foundational study which may later on lead them participation. In the words of Mullen Jim (2010): Over two decades ago researchers in the US began studying the link between learning ‘to read music and play the piano’, and ability in Math and Science. This led to a ten year…. Study comparing results for young students taking music versus students taking computer classes. Students learning to read music and play the piano scored significantly higher on Math and Science assessments.
So, the fact that some students are science inclined does not mean that they cannot join instrumental music class because students from other fields of study benefit from instrumental music. The rate of learning to read music and play the piano has other cognitive benefits.
This is because it has been discovered that the rate of learning to read and play music does not only increase the rate of learning new vocabulary, but it leads to a permanent increase in the learning experience. So, when the challenging music program is being introduced, it will make the rate of learning to increase further. Mullen Jim (2010), opines: Consider that reading music requires the student to look at music notation (an abstract symbol set) and decode it. Playing music requires that decodedinformation to be used to guide ten fingers on the piano keyboard. The brain is operating challenging receptive and productive processes simultaneously, which is good exercise for the cerebral cortex, and it soon causes permanent changes in this important area of the brain.
Music and brain work together. Instrumental music is important to a child’s development. The study has shown that the cerebral cortex of a concert pianist is enlarged more than the students that are considered to be intelligent but did not undergo instrumental music studies. So, there is an added advantage if instrumental music is introduced in all junior secondary schools in Enugu state. There will be changes on even the side of school dropout if they involve themselves on instrumental music but the problem lies on poor recognition of music in most juniorsecondary schools. Most junior secondary schools do not include music as a subject of study due to the fact that no music teacher was posted to them. In this regard, the study of instrumental music is hindered.
The teaching and learning of instrumental music in secondary schools in Enugu state need to be given urgent attention. The study of instrumental music in most schools is limited to the use of traditional musical instruments for the accompaniment of songs and dance, but it is not formerly taught.
The use of keyboard instrument as piano is on rare occasions in accompanying songs. Again, most of the teachers do not teach musical instruments because they do not know how to play them, and that Western musical instrument are the standard ones and since they are not obtainable in the
schools, instrumental music should be forgotten and they will turn to choral music.
FACTORS THAT HINDER EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Music is one of the subjects listed in the National Policy of Education (2004:5). However, the governments have not provided adequately for the teaching of music in secondary schools in Enugu state in terms of recruitment of enough qualified music teachers and also provision of adequate musical instruments needed for the teaching of music education in secondary schools. This has created the problem of lack of interest in the study of music and instrumental music by students in secondary schools in Enugu state. Instrumental music is one aspect of music education that needs proper attention. In section 1 of the National Policy on Education 4th edition (2004:5-8), it was stated that (a) education is an instrument for national development; to this end, the formulation of ideas, their integration for national development, and the interaction of persons and ideas are all aspects of education; (b) education fosters the worth and development of the individual, for each individual’s sake, and for the general development of the society. (d) there is need for functional education for the promotion of a progressive, united Nigeria; to this end, school programmes need to be relevant, practical and comprehensive; while interest and ability should determine the individual’s direction in education.
In No.5 of the N.P.E. – Nigeria’s philosophy of education therefore is based
on: (a) the development of the individual into a sound and effective citizen; and (b) the full integration of the individual into the community. In No.9 (c) – education and training facilities shall continue to be expanded in response to societal needs and made progressively accessible to afford the individual a far more diversified and flexible choice; (d) educational activities shall be centered on the learner for maximum self – development and self – fulfillment;
In section 12, No.107 stated that ‘the objectives of the planning, administrative, inspectorate, supervisory and financial services in education are to:- (a) ensure adequate and effective planning of all educational services; and (d) provide adequate and balanced financial support for all educational services’. In section 13, No.120 to 122 – Financial education stated that Education is an expensive social service and requires adequate financial provision from all tiers of government for successful implementation of the education programmes. Government’s ultimate goal is to make education…. relevant sectoral bodies such as the Education Tax Fund have been established to respond to the funding needs of education. In addition, other funds from which the burden of inancing education can be eased are:
(i) Industrial Training Fund
(ii) National Science and Technology Fund.
Upon all these stated above, the government find it difficult to make adequate provision for instrumental music in junior secondary schools in Enugu state.
Music is not a subject to be overlooked because human being cannot stay comfortably without music. So, lack of proper funding of instrumental music has
really affected the improvement on music education in junior secondary schools in Enugu state. There is no establishment that can function well without adequate fund. This is also applicable to education and the teaching and learning of instrumental music. Many students in junior secondary schools do not have textbooks for the teaching and learning of music let alone instrumental music. The lack of sitting down to read and the development of proper reading habit affect the study of instrumental music. In addition, in some junior secondary schools that have library, they do not make provision for music textbooks. Students who have textbooks do not give it adequate attention for their private studies. The time allotted to the teaching and learning of music is not large enough. Music is made up of different parts, which comprises singing: Western chorus, and African chorus, Instrumental music: Western Instrumental ensemble, and African instrumental ensemble, opera: African opera, and Western opera, Psycho motion, Dance, Dance drama and so on.
These entire heavy loads are expected to be covered by one teacher in junior section, and in most cases there are large classes in each stream. This implies that time is a big problem in the teaching and learning of music let alone instrumental music that consumes a lot of time.