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The social and economic stability of any nation is largely dependent on the ability of that nation to ensure that at all times, its people have physical and economic access to food that is adequate both quantitatively and qualitatively. Nigeria as a country has a land area of 98.3 million hectares, 74million hectares is good for farming but less than half of this land is being explored. The population involved in farming is about 60-70%.

Crop, livestock and fish Small holder farmers constitute about 80% of all farm holdings, their production system is inefficient, and there is regular shortfall in national domestic production. Therefore food import is a common feature. Agriculture is a key sector that can affect majority of Nigerians so not only small holder farmer should be involved in the production. Agricultural students should also participate in food production to ensure food security in Nigeria.

Although some countries can ensure food security through importation, the most desirable form of food security is self-sufficiency through food production1. The concept of food security has evolved during the last 3 decades to include not only food availability, but also economic access to food and the biological absorption of food in the body. Adequate per capital availability of food is a function of balance between food production on one hand, and growth in population and purchasing power, on the other. Achieving food security in its totality continues to be a challenge not only for the developing nations, but also for the developed world. The difference lies in the magnitude of the problem in terms of severity and proportion of the population affected.

In developed nations, the problem is alleviated by providing targeted food security interventions, including food and in the form of direct food relief, food stamps or indirectly through subsidized food production2. With few exceptions, the institutional relationships between agricultural teaching and research and extension services are inadequate. In many countries, this is the result of the deliberate separation of education, research and extension into different ministries and agencies and a lack of functional mechanisms to link them together to solve common problems.

Agricultural research is usually conducted at government research stations and laboratories, the majority of which are not linked with universities. Research activities are often carried out as part of postgraduate programmes of higher agricultural education, but they are seldom directly related to national research priorities and programmes. Unfortunately, the training of human resources in agriculture is often not a high priority in the development plans of some countries.

As a result, curricula and teaching programmes are not particularly relevant to the production needs and employment demands of the agricultural sector. The situation has become more serious in recent years due to the economic crises in the public sector in many developing countries. In the past, the public sector absorbed nearly all agriculture graduates. This is no longer the case, and agriculture graduates are finding it increasingly difficult to find employment.

Governments can no longer afford to hire every graduate, and education in agriculture has not kept up with the increasingly sophisticated labor demands of the private sector. These and other factors, such as environmental degradation, rapid changes in technical knowledge and the increasing marginalization of rural areas, all call for changes in the current systems of education in agriculture in many developing countries3.

Sustainable agriculture ensures adequate food security for the ever increasing population. Food production and adequate access to food are issues of top priority at major conferences and seminars in academic and professional gatherings all over the world. The goal of achieving and maintaining sustainable farming system is rapidly becoming a top priority of agricultural and environmental protection policies in most developing countries.

Also, the growth of ‘the community as a major focus of development, through which improved collective agricultural action can take place, has spread rapidly through development ideology since 1970s. In these developing countries, decision planners and field workers are faced with bewildering dilemmas; how to increase yields without degrading soil and water resources, how to meet production targets in the light of escalating farm input costs and foreign exchange shortages, how to raise productivity of the small farm sector, how to narrow the gap between incomes in farming and other sectors4.

In addition to these dilemmas, intensive agricultural research and delivery systems have performed disappointingly low in the least developed countries, particularly those of the sub-Saharan Africa for example Nigeria, Ghana, Cameroon, etc. This is in sharp contrast to some other developing countries in Asia and Latin America where there has been a degree of success, especially ‘Green Revolution’ technology, from international research centres and popularizing same in agricultural favoured areas (that is, those with favourable production potential and reasonably good market access). But even in these countries, little has been achieved in risk prone environments (that is, those which rely on rain fed crops, have harsh environments with uncertain rainfall, and poor physical and social infrastructure), and little has been done to address problems that impact directly on disadvantaged farming communities5.


1.2 Scope of the Study

From the topic of the study, one may think that it is too wide an area to embark on. Be that as it may appear, this study does not pretend to cover everything about food security and sustainable agriculture in post-conflict society tracing the trajectory of food production decline in Nigeria from 1960-2015. This study has examined another angle of various efforts that have been made in finding lasting solutions to the problems of food security and sustainable agriculture in Nigeria

1.3 Sources and Methodology

The method of data collection used in this research study is the Secondary source which is also known as documentation. Due to the spontaneous nature of the issue under investigation, we gather information from magazines, Journals, Newspapers, textbooks, internet materials which are relevant to the study.

The framework of content analysis is what we adopted due to the fact that it will aid us in giving better appreciable acknowledgment to the study and make us knowledgeably acquainted to the subject under analysis.

1.4 Literature Review

Many erudite scholars have conducted extensive studies on various aspects of food security and sustainable agricultural, according to Brutland Commission production systems in agriculture involve those approaches to food production that ensures constant increase in productivity without compromising the chances of future generations to provide for themselves6. It involves production practices that ensure environmental conservation and no or minimal disturbance to the natural eco support system, hence protects the potentials of the natural regeneration of the flora and fauna.

Sustainable development according to World Commission is development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. In the view of Ballara date, sustainable development is humanity’s ability to survive by means of the rational use of renewable resources by refraining from disrupting the ecosystem or over-exploiting natural resource and by refraining from activities that destroy cultures or societies and instead allow them to reach their potential7.

Liebhardt, defined agricultural sustainability to involve production activities that minimizes the use of external inputs and maximizes the use of internal inputs, which already exists on the farm8. Further to this, Harwood, refers sustainable farming as the farmers’ capacity to optimally improve agricultural productivity by rational utilization of both internal and external resources and being conscious of conserving the catchment’s environment9.

Nwaiwu, defined external inputs as those inputs that are artificially manufactured, very capital intensive in procurement, usually purchased, depends on very high skill and technology to produce and use and not readily available to the resource poor farmers; while internal inputs refer to those inputs that are naturally endowed, relatively very cheap to produce, do not require high skill to use, depends on indigenous technology, very readily available and affordable to the farmers.

However, Durham, argued that, the concept of world food surplus is extremely mischievous. They contended that sustainable production depends on maintaining the carrying capacity which is a prerequisite to that production. Yet maintenance of agricultural and indeed, the whole earth’s ecological carrying capacity, depend on limiting the human population growth which increasingly impairs it10.

Verheye supports the above views acknowledging the decline in food production on per capital basis in Africa, painting a scenario of Africa experiencing two demographical trends, Firstly population is increasing at an average rate of 3-4% a year, which has doubled in the past 25 years, and is expected to reach 1 billion within next few years. Secondly, the number of people employed in agriculture has decreased significantly from 74% in 1965 to 57% in 1988.

This decline is associated with drift of young males from rural areas towards urban and industrial areas11. According to the Report of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) which has tracked the incidence of hunger highest in the sub-Saharan Africa, where one in every three persons suffer from chronic hunger and the greatest number of under nourished is in South Asia measured at about 299 million and closely followed by East Asia at 255 million people. In essence, in Nigeria with a population of 140 million, about 50 million people suffer from extreme hunger


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