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PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Economics is one of the subjects that is being taught to students in senior secondary schools. The basic principle of this subject is to equip students with the basic knowledge and idea of solving economic problems around their environment. The subject has been defined variously by economists in different ways based on their perspective. For instance, in Oleabhiele (2011:1) defined economics as “an inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of the nations”.

At that time, wealth was the major objective of the study of economics. His interest was on the wealth of the nations that was why he emphasized the disparities of the wealth of the nations. Similarly, Marshall in Ekpo (2008:1) defined economics “as the study of mankind in the ordinary business of life”. His emphasis was also on wealth creation. However, Robbins in Adeshina (2015: 1) gave what could be regarded as the most generally accepted definition of economics.

According to him, “economics is a science which study human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”. He emphasized that economic analysis should follow logical process rather than value judgment. From the foregoing definitions, the researcher may therefore define economics as the study of how scarce resources can be maximally utilized for the benefit of mankind.

This definition therefore means that the study of economics focuses on how man makes effective and efficient use of his scarce resources to actualize his countless wants. Economics is an important subject that must be passed by students before gaining admission into any tertiary institution especially the university to study relevant courses like Accountancy, Business Administration and Public Administration. The Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004:18) goes further to outline the specific objectives of economics as to:

  • Prepare and encourage students to be prudent and effective in the management of scarce resources and
  • Equip students with the basic principles of economics necessary for useful living and higher education
  • Raise students for the dignity of labour and their appreciation of economic, cultural and social value of the society.

The above objectives of economics are important because they enable both leaders and citizens to understand basic economics concepts, principles as well as to understand, appreciate and seek to improve the economic situation for their own social, political and economic good. Despite the usefulness of economics as shown in the senior secondary school curriculum, there has been a dismal performance of students in senior certificate examination (Lawal, 2015).

Many factors have been suggested as contributing to the poor performance in general and in Ohaukwu Local Government Area in particular. Some of these factors include: inappropriate teaching method (Ikwumelu and Oleabhiele, 2009), mathematical nature of economics (Oleabhiele 2011), gender differentiated motive in subject involving mathematics and science related subject like economics.

The continuous poor achievement of secondary school students in economics has been source of concern to economics educators, and stakeholders in the education industry. Chief Examiners’ Report on SSCE May/June (2003: 89) showed that poor instructional media are major causes of poor performance of students in economics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to look for appropriate and effective instructional media to teach economics concepts and principles which should be learner based and innovative in order to combat the high failure of students of economics in Ohaukwu Local Government Area and enhance their chosen careers at higher levels.

One of the ways of improving their achievement in economics may be to introduce an instructional delivery mode such as electronic instructional media that appeal to more than one sense organ. The term electronic is defined as something having or operating with the aid of many small components (e.g microchips) that control and direct an electric current. Thus, electric calculators, electric keyboards, electric dictionaries, electronic bibles are all examples of electronic equipment. Electronic is a branch of science and technology that deals with the behaviour of electric currents in electronic equipment.

Hornby (2010) defined mass media as “the main means of communicating with large numbers of people, especially television, radio and Newspapers”. That is, all the ways, channels, tools and aids through which information, instruction and knowledge could be conveyed to learners. Therefore electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (students) to access the content.

Many authors have written on the use of electronic media in teaching economics. These authors include Nwanna-Nzewunwa(2003), Aquokogbuo (2000), Koert (2000) and Greenwood (2001). More specifically, it was underlined in the works of these authors that the use of electronic instructional media is a sine qua non for successful transfer of knowledge from teachers to the learners. Indeed, it has been described as the most powerful weapon of instruction both in schools and anywhere economics knowledge is impacted. The reason is not far-fetched: advances in technology, have brought electronic media to the forefront as the most radical tools of globalization and economic development.

Such technological break through as networked and non-networked, projected and non-projected, visual, auditory, audio-visual electronic media are important landmarks in knowledge transfer from the teachers to the students with them both teaching and learning of economics becomes very pleasant experiences (Aguokogbuo, 2000: 237). Electronic instructional media provide concepts and facts to the student which improve his skills, ability to reason and make him/her informed about what is going on around the environment.

Electronic instructional media are those materials that are used to arouse students learning” (Nwanna-Nzewunwa, 2003). Electronic instructional media include both visuals and audio visuals such as pictures, flashcards, tape recorder, radio, video, television, computers among others. They provide the teacher with interesting and compelling platform for conveying information since they motivate learners to want to learn more and more.

Also by providing opportunities for private study and reference, the student’s interest and curiosity are increasingly stimulated. Furthermore, the teacher is assisted in overcoming physical difficulties that could have hindered his effective presentation of economics. Even teachers with low voices are assisted by the microphone system inherent in most electronic media. They generally make teaching and learning of economics easier and less stressful.

Supporting this Zakka (2009) maintains that the use of electronic instructional media enables students to access, share, analyze and present information gained from a variety of sources in many different ways. Wentworth (2004) added that with the use of electronic instructional media in the teaching of economics, students are allowed to learn the subject through active participation in the learning process and they are more likely, to retain information so acquired and to apply it in new situations. The effectiveness of electronic instructional media as a teaching method is yet to be explored in the teaching of economics in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State.

Considering the nature of the subject which is based on abstraction and also gender biased and requires a sound mathematical background, it may be worth speculating that the application of electronic instructional media in the teaching of economics may have a remarkable impact in the achievement of students in economics in Ohaukwu Local Government Area. Gender has always been an essential factor in learning situations and career choices.

Gender refers to the differences in roles and behaviour between male and female as defined by the society. Boys’ Achievement (2003) observed that for a long time now, there has been gender differentiated motive in subject involving science, mathematics and reading. This is because girls are considered better in creative subject like Art and Reading whereas boys in science and mathematics therefore, gender differences in economics at the senior secondary schools level are due to differences in roles and meaningful learning modes adopted by boys or girls.

Economics which has more elements of mathematics and statistics is believed to be a difficult subject for the female folks. Thus, if girls are exposed to economics class, meaningful learning will occur less for them than boys and when this pattern is repeated after years, girls achievement in economics will be very low unlike the boys in the class. Therefore, it is against this backdrop that this study attempts to determine the impact of electronic instructional media on senior secondary school achievement in economics using Ohaukwu Local Government of Ebonyi State as a case study.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

Statement of the Problem

The conventional method of talk and chalk which has been the prevalent mode of lesson presentation in Ohaukwu Local Government is characterized by verbal symbolism. Infact the over dependence of the teachers on the use of some conventional methods constitutes the problem resulting in poor students performance in academic activities in examinations (Ikwumelu and Oleabhiele, 2009). The problem here is that if this poor instructional strategy adopted by economics teachers in teaching economics is left unchecked, the global aim of realizing curricular goals through education may not be realized in Ohaukwu Local Government Area and in Ebonyi State in general.

Thus, there has been vigorous search for an instructional media that will improve the quality of teaching economics and subsequently students learning in secondary schools. This study therefore is a response to the challenge and is faced with the problem of verifying the impact of electronic instructional media on senior secondary school students achievement in economics in Ohaukwu Local Government area, that is, whether electronic instructional media will help to improved achievement of students in economics or not.

Purpose of the Study 

The main purpose of the study is to determine the impact of electronic instructional media on senior secondary students’ achievement in economics in Ohaukwu Local Government area. Specifically, the study tries to find out the following.

  1. Determine the academic performance of students taught economic with electronic instructional media and those taught using conventional method.
  2. Determine the performance of male and female economics students
  3. Determine the interaction effect of teaching method and gender on students achievement in economics.

Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be of immense benefit to students, teachers, curriculum development and policy implementation and researchers.

The result of this study will provide students with a more functional method to the learning of economics and it will go a long way to improving their performance both in internal and external examinations.

On the part of the teacher, the study will equip teachers with a more relevant method to the teaching of economics. Teachers would be made to understand by the findings of this work, the need for their professional improvement as well some critical competencies which every teacher must possess as they teach economics.

The findings of this study will have a lot of significance for curriculum development and policy implementation in Nigeria. The findings will provide information on the extent to which electronic instructional media can facilitate students achievement in economics. This will obviously inform the policy makers and curriculum developers on the need to enshrine the model in the economics modules. There may therefore be a need to review the current instructional method for economics in our school system.

Researchers are not left out in the benefits of this study, this is because it will serve as reference to others who may wish to research on the same topic or related subject matter of the study. Finally, it is hoped that the result of the study will provide instructional approach which will generally improve the standard of economics teaching in secondary schools.

Scope of the Study

The study focused on the impact of electronic instructional media on senior secondary school students’ achievement in economics. The study will be delimited to senior secondary school students in Ohaukwu Local Government Area of Ebonyi State. The study will also cover the senior secondary school SSS II economics students in Ohaukwu Local Government Area. The scope also covers the mean achievement of male and female students in economics and finally the interaction effect of teaching methods and gender on students’ achievement in economics.

Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the effects of electronic instructional media on students’ performance in economics as compared to the conventional method of instruction?
  2. What are the effects of gender on the students’ achievement in economics when taught with electronic instructional media?

What are the interaction effects of electronic instructional media teaching methods and gender on students’ achievement in economics?

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF ELECTRONIC INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA ON SENIOR SECONDARY STUDENTS’ ACHIEVEMENT IN ECONOMICS IN OHAUKWU LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA

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