PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY: A CASE OF DIAMOND BANK PLC, ENUGU BRANCH
This research titled, “Impact of Leadership and Organizational Behavior on Employees Productivity: A Case of Diamond Bank plc, Enugu Branch” was aimed at determining the impact of leadership on work performance in Diamond bank, Enugu Branch, to determine the relationship between leadership styles and organizational behaviour in Diamond Bank, Enugu Branch, to ascertain the extent leadership has been affecting decision making and organizational effectiveness in Diamond Bank, Enugu Branch. The researcher adopted a survey research method, data were collection and analyzed through questionnaire. The findings revealed that organizational productivity depend largely on leadership. Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. As seen by the employees, it includes the total pattern of explicit and implicit actions performed by their leader. Based on the analysis, the study, recommends that First, the party must develop a mass based, oriented and directed approach, there should improved inter-personal relationship between the staff and the management team to ensure increased productivity, there should be a free flow of information to ensure cohesion, the staff should be involved in the process of decision making to ensure strict compliance, the management team should always have the welfare of the workers at heart, the management team should create a conducive atmosphere that will enhance workers participation in the day to day running of the business.
1.1 Background of the Study
The growth of any organization depends upon the development and utilization of people in it. The efficiency of organization whether private or public depends to a large extent on how effective the human resources are utilized. For an organization to achieve the desired objectives it must seek and obtain the co-operation of the people it has to work with. The management should develop programmes and polices that will enable it to obtain its desired result from the employees.
Organizations are being forced to operate in an increasing competitive environment and this placed emphasis on the role of management in making the most effective use of human resources in order to meet its objectives. Development and management in technology and system of communication have added to the consequential need for efficient system for the management of information.
From the above, we can clearly understand that the goals of the establishment cannot be achieved only by providing and ensuring adequate supply of human resources. This is because the human resources that are not motivated will only be answering human resources of the establishment without giving their best. Human resources management is that part of the process that is concerned with the maintenance of human relationship and ensuring the physical well being of the employees so that they can give their maximum contribution to efficiency working in an organiaztion (Elegonye 2010).
It is obviously and closely related to the management process as a whole, and each functional manager and supervisor must apply its principles efficiently. According to Dessler (2001), human resources management is referred to as “the policies and practices one needs to carry out the people or personnel aspects of a management position, this includes: recruiting, screening, training, rewarding and appraising by conducting job analysis, providing incentives and benefit, appraising performance communicating (i.e. interviewing, counseling disciplining), training and developing, building employee commitment and finally what a manager should know about.
Furthermore, Batans Maby, (2009), views and described human resources as capacities of performing task, which is the meaning of the term manpower. He tried to define human resource in terms of the capacities of the employees to perform task. He also believes that human resources is the same as manpower. The above assertion made an author to say that the word manpower and labourforce are often used interchangeable, although it is said that there is no demarcation in human resources.
However, there are problems militating against human resources development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government area which makes the employees not to contribute their maximum human potential which are necessary to make for higher productivity, growth and avoid organizational catastrophe. The active resource of an organization is human resource. Other resources remain inactive unless there are competent people to utilize the available resources for the production of goods and services.
Human brain has a limitless energy to think and act in a productive way. Hence, competent and qualified human resource is a key factor of organizational success. In this regard, the emergence of human resource development (HRD) plays a vital role in enhancing the entrepreneurial skill of people. Human Resource Development (HRD) is a process of developing skills, competencies, knowledge and attitudes of people in an organization.
The people become human resource only when they are competent to perform organizational activities. Therefore, HRD ensures that the organization has such competent human resource to achieve its desired goals and objectives. HRD imparts the required knowledge and skill in them through effective arrangement of training and development programs. HRD is an integral part of Human Resource Management (HRM) which is more concerned with training and development, career planning and development and the organization development.
The organization has to understand the dynamics of HR and attempt to cope with changing situation in order to deploy its HR effectively and efficiently. And HRD helps to reach this target. Hence, HRD is a conscious and proactive approach applied by employers which seeks to capacitate employees through training and development to give their maximum to the organization and to fully use their potential to develop themselves. Chidi, (2003).
The inability of management to develop and manage human Resources has caused a number problems which among others, include- poor recruitment methods, inadequate placement, inadequate training, poor motivation, industrial disharmony, leadership crises, poor communication network and other environmental factors that affect human resources development and management.
For efficiency and effectiveness in achieving organizational effectiveness in Nsukka Local Government Area, management must be able to decide how, when and where each individual should work. Too frequent shifting of workers may have a negative impact on their relationship with other workers. It is against this background that this study becomes imperative to appraise the factors militating against human resources development and management in government establishment with Nsukka Local Gorvernment as a point of reference.
PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF LEADERSHIP AND ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY: A CASE OF DIAMOND BANK PLC, ENUGU BRANCH
- Statement of Problem
Human resource development problems in Nigeria appears to be on the increase. The unemployment phenomenon seems to be compounded with the absence and misplacement of human resource to the capability of the public and private sectors of the economy to provide opportunities for human resources at their disposal. As is the case therefore, some of the problems to be observed in Nsukka Local Government area include: poor performance, poor management, lack of adequate remuneration, lack of training/motivation, Misappropriation and diversion of fund, lack of proper perception of the government vision and mission by the workers, rigid government policy. These problems of public organisations lie primary with the neglect of its human resources potentials. Human Resource development and management is a vital process in any organization such as Nsukka Local Government Area.
Some of the prevailing socio-economic problems of the country such constant labour unrest, rising unemployment, high rate of crime, poor standard of living and even inflation can be attributed to poor labour management relations in most organisations. Nsukka Local government area is not an exception as the local Government is continually faced with management problems.
It is therefore the intention of the researcher to investigate the factors responsible for poor human resources development and management and give possible solutions to arrest this ugly situation in Nsukka Local Government area.
The extent to which Nsukka local Government management has handled the inhibiting factors affecting the utilization of human resources development is a subject of debate. It is against this background that this research work poses the following research questions:
- To what extent does favoritism hinder human resource management in Nsukka Local Government Area?
- Does leadership style affect human resource development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area?
- What are the possible solutions to the problems of human resource utilization and development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this research work is to ascertain the problems militating against human Resources development and management in Nsukka Local Government Area.
The specific objectives are now as follow:
- To ascertain the extent to which favoritism hinders human resource development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area.
- To examine the effect of leadership style on human resource development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area.
- To suggest possible solutions to the problems of human resource utilization and development in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State.
1.4 Significance of the Study
The significance of this research is that its outcome will throw more light on the problems that hinder human resources development and management and will also bring or give solutions to those problems militating against human resources development in Nsukka Local Government.
The research will also be beneficial to the employees and management of Nsukka Local Government Area, who are the target group as it will produce ways for effective management of human resources in the local government. The research will also help students who may be investigating on the similar topic and policy makers both in private and public organizations.
The following hypotheses were drawn to guide the investigation or research work.
Ho: Favoritism does not significantly affect human resource development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area.
H1: favoritism significantly affect human resource development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area
Ho: Leadership style does not affect human resources development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area.
H1: Leadership style affects human resources development and utilization in Nsukka Local Government Area.
Ho: Increased opportunity for promotion do not enhance human resources development.
H1: Increased opportunity for promotion enhance manpower development.
1.6 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study will cover the Nsukka Local Government Area, knowing quite well that any attempts to investigate into the problem of human resources development and management in the entire organisation will expose the problems militating against human resources in the organisation and after which generalization will be made to cover other organisations.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
A study like this cannot be without some limitations inherent in it. Some of the limitations to this study include:
Financial Constraint: The researcher had a very limited amount of money to undertake all that was involved in the carrying out the study and this made him unable to go beyond and the state scope.
Time Constraint: The time given for the submission of this work was very short that the researcher underwent a lot of stressful activities to produce the report.
Material Collection: it was not easy for the researcher to go to places (libraries, local government council achieves etc.) where relevant materials were sourced.
Poor Attitude of Respondents: The un-complying attitude of some of the respondents in responding to my question to enhance data/information collection resulted in waste of valuable time which could have been used for the study
Finally, inadequate fund was also a limiting factor in this study as this made it difficult to source some of the secondary data/information needed.
1.8 Theoretical Frameworks
The analytical tool for this research will be based on the decision making theory. The decision making theories was postulated by Daniel Boroul in 1938. This theory has been undergoing series of modification since its formulation. It was in 1960 that some writers such as William Riker, James Robinson and Herbert Simon enriched the decision making theory for two purposes. One is the identification of crucial structures in the political and administrative realm where changes take place, where decisions are made and where actions are initiated and carried out. While the other is the systematic analysis of the decision making behaviour which lead to action.
The concept of decision making as a theory is a guide to policy making. A good policy is a product of rational decision-making. Human resources development and management is an aspect of public administration, which intends to organize and thereby averting negative performance. To achieve good human resources development and management, rational decision-making is of most importance in any organization. It is only when decision makers are rational that good policies result shall be envisaged thereby encouraging good human resources development and management.
This theory as it concerns this study will help the research to ascertain how decision are made in Nsukka Local Government and how such conscious actions have helped to encourage human resources development and management. The decision-making approach is important to this study as no organization can strive well in our contemporary societies without rational decision-making. Nsukka Local Government like other organizations make decision, which guide the development and management of human resources. This theory is relevant to this study as good decision making portrays good policy action hence human resources development and management where as half hazard decision-making gives birth to pre-mature and ill fated policy output thereby retarding the growth of human resources development and management.
1.9 Operational Definition
It is necessary that operational and lucid definition be given to some of the concepts that will be used repeatedly in this research. It is envisaged that the following concept will receive attention in the entire work.
Human Resources: This refers to the totality of human element involved in production and other activities geared towards achieving the goals of an organisation. It includes the special skill and strength of the work force. It can also be referred to as the manpower of an organisation.
Development: This activity focuses upon the activities that the organization employing the individual, or that the individual is part of, may partake in the future, and is almost impossible to evaluate. Human resources development is the increase in the productivity potential of the workforce of an organisation for goal maximization and cost minimization.
Management: This is a process of planning, organising, directing and controlling organisation resources so as to achieve the stated goals of the organisation.
Training: Giving teaching and practice to workers in order to bring the desired standard of behavior in them.
Motivational Factor: Drivers of human behavior related to the intrinsic nature of the work , but not necessarily to the surrounding circumstances or environment . Motivating factors include achievement, advancement, autonomy , personal growth, recognition , responsibility , and the work itself.
Productivity: the effectiveness of productive effort, especially in industry, as measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input.