PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE USING THE NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, 9TH MILE, NGWO, ENUGU
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In modern, advanced; industrial complex societies, manpower development processes have been ongoing to enable man meet the challenges of the future and keep abreast of better techniques of survival. Similarly, in modern industrial organizations, programmes for up-grading the skills, knowledge and abilities of employees, motivating them to work and inculcating in them a positive orientation to work are conducted.
This, it is believed will create job satisfaction and expose them to better production techniques that will invariably increase organizational productivity. This is in view of the fact that production revolves around labour. Even in situations where industrial organizations, particularly, manufacturing concerns make use of the latest technology that ostensibly reduce man-hour, it still requires a highly skilled and motivated competent workers’ knowledgeable in the manipulation of such machinery to effect increase in output.
Such worker is usually a product of an effective manpower development programme. Studies have also shown that the success of most business organizations do not depend entirely on how well such organizations are financially equipped but more on how well the human elements or resources working in such organizations are experienced. The experiences acquired by those human elements do not simply come out of the blues; rather, they were as a result of the opportunities given to them to training and retraining.
It has also been observed that in most organizations, whether in the public or private sector, those who are found to be more productive are those who have wealth of experience on their jobs and as a result of training and the resultant development. This is why in the contemporary times, many managers or employers in several organizations are no more averse to the concept of manpower development. They have begun to realize the importance of development programmes for their employees.
The above may explain why Ubeku (1984) stated that “the process of training and development is a continuous one, and money spent on the training and development of employees is money well invested”. He went further to explain that in organizations, employees who have not received adequate training before being assigned responsibilities lack the necessary confidence with which to carry out their tasks.
For this reason, an employee should be helped to grow into more responsibility by systematic and elaborate programmes of manpower development, because it is only then that he will feel confident and believe that he knows what is expected of him regarding the job. As he believes he can do it, his enthusiasm for the job increases. Consequently, as noted by Donnelly (1992) “an employee in this position is more likely to originate ideas as to how best to carry out the tasks of the job”. Conversely, employees who are not trained tend to cling to methods they were shown the first time they took over the job.
They are frightened of doing the job in a different way because something might go wrong and that risk they cannot take. Based on the foregoing, one can safely say that employers in organizations that have in their curriculum, effective and well thought out programmes of manpower development, are paving the way for the success and survival of their organizations, and the resultant enjoyment of optimal performance on the part of their employees.
Available literature also argues that investment in manpower development practices can raise and sustain a high level of firm’s performance. Human or manpower development can represent a significant source of comparative advantage, as they are the means by which organizations locate, develop and retain rare, non-imitable and non-substitutable human capital (Barney 1991; Barney, 2001).
The studies found in the literature have predominantly reported a positive effect of using effective manpower development practices, although it needs to be ensured that costs for introducing and maintaining these practices do not outweigh their benefits. Koch and McGrath (2006) investigated the impact of a set of manpower development practices on labour productivity and found out that investments in manpower development planning are positively associated with labour productivity.
Results showed that organizations that systematically develop their workers are more likely to enjoy the rewards of a more productive workforce than those that do not. The Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu, the focus of this research is one of such industrial organization that conducts manpower development programme for its employees. This company is an entirely business organization.
Therefore, it has all the characteristics and goals of formal and profit-oriented business concern prominent among which are profit-maximization, increased output at low cost, per unit as well as an increased expansion and mechanization of business operations. Like every other business organization of its kind, the extent to which it fulfills their objectives and sustains its existence in a highly competitive business world depends largely on efficiency and quality of its workforce.
Thus, the efficient utilization of production machinery, the innovativeness of its management and the orientation of its employees will, to a large extent, depend on the quality of its human development practices. Manpower development programmes for its employees becomes important if their productive capacities must be effectively and maximally harnessed. The existence of a well articulated and carefully designed manpower development programme appears inevitable for the attainment of these objectives.
PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT ON JOB PERFORMANCE USING THE NIGERIAN BOTTLING COMPANY PLC, 9TH MILE, NGWO, ENUGU
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Many industries in Nigeria are usually set up with the lofty aim of providing the much needed industrial and economic development. But no sooner they are established than they begin to show signs of decline. Sometimes, some of them fold up while others just keep dragging on. A closer look at the reasons for the decline of these industries reveals a shortage of qualified and skilled manpower as one of the important reasons.
This was particularly the case immediately after Nigeria got her independence in 1960, and the colonialists, who constituted the bulk of the skilled industrial manpower withdrew. There was a sharp decline in industrial productivity because of the unavailability of indigenous skilled manpower to replace the European workers (Teribal, 1981). However, this is not to suggest that skilled manpower is the only variable determining industrial productivity, for these are other variables such as raw materials, state of technology and capital, etc.
Up till the present day, many industries in Nigeria, apart from a few big industrial concerns, do not have elaborate manpower development schemes for their employees. This could be attributed to their obsession with profit making and a misplaced need to reduce cost of production. Frustration and redundancy is another problem, and this hampers productivity. In most cases, workers lack knowledge about the organization’s goals and objectives.
Vital decisions regarding production are made without regard to employees opinions. In other words, opportunities to develop and make use of their initiatives are not there. Where they exist, they are too limited to be of any significance. Workers are seen as mere tools in the production process, relevant only to the extent that they are instrumental to making profit. Besides, there is still the problem of proper integration of the worker in his job.
He defines himself outside his job. His job becomes important only to the extent that it guarantees him his next meal. He derives no intrinsic benefit or satisfaction from being part of the organization. As a result, he develops a negative orientation to work. He becomes non-committal and does not release his full productive energy to work. Then, the productivity of the organization is negatively affected.
Also deriving from the above is the problem of lack of motivation to perform. The employee is not motivated to utilize his maximum productive energy because of the absence of any strategy to improve his welfare, enlarge his career opportunities by guaranteeing his prospect for career development and advancement which negatively affects productivity. Furthermore, at the level of management, the action of management at times negatively affects productivity of the organization.
Non-visionary, non-innovative and inarticulate policy formulations definitely have negative impact on productivity. Management that lacks basic understanding of the dynamics of industrial production, and lacks vision or foresight is incapable of effectively managing the human and financial resources at its disposal and ensures industrial peace. This often creates a destabilizing situation that hinders productivity. The above problems are supposed to be addressed by an effective and properly articulated and designed manpower development programme.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In the light of the above problems of the study, the following research questions have been raised to guide the research.
- Are the contents of the manpower development schemes relevant to the organization’s goals and objectives?
- Do the nature of training and supervision of the employees allow them to develop and make effective use of their initiatives, discretion and creative abilities in the process?
- How innovative and helpful have policy formulations been in increasing performance and productivity?
- Are there prospects for the career advancement of the employees?
- To what extent are workers involved in vital decision making process?
- Are the employees satisfied in terms of the effective utilization of their skills for maximum productivity?
All these questions which could either negatively or positively affect employees performance and organizational productivity constitute the focus of the research with particular reference to Nigeria Bottling Company PLC, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu.
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
- To determine the relevance and adequacy of the content of the manpower development schemes to the organization’s goals and objectives.
- To ascertain whether the nature of training and supervision of the employees allow for development and make effective use of their initiatives, discretion and creative abilities in the process.
iii. To, determine how innovative and policy formulation have increased their performance and productivity.
- To examine the prospects for the career development of the employees.
- To ascertain the involvement of the employees in decision-making.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In the context of the present study, issues of manpower development as it relates to organizational productivity is considered an important subject of discourse for two major reasons. First, is the fact that man is the essence as well as the agent of development, (Yesufu 1979). Ancillary to this is that development generally and industrial developments in particular, make increasing demand for developed human skills (Pym, 1968).
The acquisition of these skills becomes possible by subjecting the employees to various manpower development schemes to improve their mental and practical abilities. Another significance of the present research is that in most Nigerian business organizations, past and present, efforts to develop their manpower resources for higher performance and productivity have been very inadequate.
Okore (2005) attributes this to undue emphasis on profit-making, ignorance of the importance of a skilled qualified manpower to productivity, the need to reduce production costs, etc. This research will, through its outcome, stress the importance of manpower development to employee performance and organizational productivity. Closely related to the above significance is the fact that a realization of the importance of highly skilled and motivated manpower to an organization’s overall performance will, enable management of business organizations to place greater emphasis on the development of human resources in organizations.
Thus, it would enable the management to formulate, articulate and innovate policy measures which are productive. Finally, the research is equally important because the outcome, if adopted and applied by management, would better prepare their organizations towards meeting future challenges in terms of easy adaptation to new technologies and keeping abreast with current management best practices.
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following hypotheses have been raised to guide the study.
H0: There is a significant relationship between employee training and development, and increased job performance.
H1: There is no significant relationship between employee training and development, and increased job performance.
H0: There is a significant relationship between the level of education of trainees and quicker acquisition of necessary knowledge and skills.
H1: There is no significant relationship between the level of education of trainees and quicker acquisition of necessary knowledge and skills.
H0 there is a significant relationship between adequate training and development, and an increase in job satisfaction.
H1: there is no significant, relationship between adequate training and development and an increase in job satisfaction.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research study critically appraisal the issue of manpower development and job performance with a particular focus on Nigerian Bottling Company Plc, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu.
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research study is constrained by a number of problems or challenges in the process of generating data for the study. The first has to do with the reluctance and uncooperative attitude of employees of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu, to give information that would facilitate the research, perhaps, for fear of victimization by the management.
The second is the problem of adequate funds to undertake an in-depth and more objective study. Finally there is the problem of inadequate of relevant data about the company because there has been no previous research in this regard which would have provided a source of literature for the study. However, in spite of these constraints, the outcome of the study had stood the test of objectivity.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
- Manpower Development: In the study, manpower development is referred to in this context as service, work need, ability for work. It is a complexity of processes which aim at transforming human beings so that they can contribute effectively to social and economic progress. Also manpower development could be seen as a hypothetical construct which explains the initiatives, directed intensity and persistence of goal-directed behavior.
- Performance: The term “performance” as employed in the research can be understood in terms of ability to achieve targeted production as set by the company; ability to produce high quality products in accordance with the company’s standard; ability to achieve targeted production under time constraint, ability to show high productivity; always coming to office in accordance with the time specified; always following the instruction that is given by the supervisor as well as trying to be accurate in completing assigned tasks. These in essence is performance.
- Training: According to Gehee and Thayer (1961), training in industry is the formal procedure which a company utilizes to facilitate learning so that the resultant behavior contributes to the attainment of the organizations goals and objectives. In the study, training, therefore, is formal procedure directed towards enhancing a specific skill, which in turn, enhances person’s proficiency in performing certain tasks.
4. Appraisal: This is defined as a judgment of the value, performance or nature of somebody or something (in our case here), it is used to evaluate the impact of manpower development on job performance of employees of Nigeria Bottling Company Plc, 9th Mile Corner, Enugu.