PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHERS IN AFIKPO EDUCATION ZONE, EBONYI STATE
This study investigated the “Impact of Motivation on the Performance of Business Studies Teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State”. Four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprised of 128 respondents. The entire population were used as the sample size. The instrument was validated by three experts, two from measurement and evaluation option of Science Education Department and one from Business Education Department all in Ebonyi State University Abakakili. Crobach’s Alpha method was used to test the reliability of the instrument which yielded a reliability index of 0.84. The data collected were analyzed using arithmetic mean (X) while t-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 per cent level of significance. The results of the data analysis showed that; salary increment, early payment of salary, promotion when due, staff training, job security, good working conditions, rewards for good performance motivate business studies teachers, business studies teachers would be motivated by good administrative policies through good human resource management, increase in motivation leads to increase in business studies teachers’ performance. The results of the hypotheses tested show that there is no significant difference between the mean rating of male and female business studies teachers on job motivational factors that affect their performance and there was no significant difference between the mean rating of business studies teachers from urban and rural areas on environmental motivational factors that affect their performance. From the findings of the study, it was recommended among other things that business studies teachers are motivated by adequately increasing their salaries, early payment of their salaries, and adequate promotion and the conducive environmental conditions for effective and efficient teaching and learning of business studies and more efforts in adopting good administrative policies that will motivate business studies teachers thereby helping them in performing their jobs effectively.
- Background to the Study
Teacher motivation has become an important issue given their responsibility to impart knowledge and skills to learners. It is argued that satisfied teachers are generally more productive and can influence student’s achievement (Mertler, 2002). Motivation is the means of activating the behaviour of an individual towards the accomplishment of certain goals (Akuson, 2008). Thus, tomotivate an individual or group is to impel an action to achieve a felt need.
Hence, it follows that motivation is one of the essential elements of management that could make the achievement of the overall objectives of an organization possible. Motivation guide people’s actions and behaviours toward achievement of some goals (Analoui, 2000). According to Sansone and Harackiewicz, (2000) motivation is often described as being intrinsic or extrinsic in nature.
Intrinsic motivation, deriving from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behaviour, performance, and well being (Ryan and Deci, 2000). Extrinsic motivation on the other hand, results from the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations among others. In contrast to extrinsic motivation, intrinsic motivation is said to exist when behaviour is performed for its own sake rather than to obtain material or social reinforcers.
The concept of intrinsic motivation was an important challenge to behaviourism, and has roots in White’s (2005) competence or reflectance motivation Maslow (1943) and Alderfer (1969) addressed similar needs. In this study, intrinsic motivation of teachers will be measured in terms of job satisfaction derived from teaching, enjoyment of teaching, the challenging and competitive nature of teaching recognition, career achievement and control over others.
Extrinsic motivation of teachers on the other hand, will be measured in terms of externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others. After psychologists introduced these intrinsic needs, management scholars developed the important distinction between intrinsic motivations (a hypothetical construct presumably residing within the person) and intrinsically motivating tasks.
Herzberg (1966) described tasks as intrinsically motivating when they are characterized by key motivators such as responsibility,challenge, achievement, variety, and advancement opportunity. With Herzberg as precursor, Hackman and Oldham (1976) identified task variety, tasks identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback from the task as key characteristic that generate intrisic motivation. More recently, in the psychology literature, intrinsically motivated behaviouris alleged to derive from and satisfy innate psychological needs including needs for competence and autonomy (Kasser and Ryan, 1996).
According to Deci (2000), perceptions of personal (as opposed to external) control satisfy these needs, and constitute the fundamental feature distinguishing intrinsically motivated behaviour from extrinsically motivated behaviour. Teachers’ job performance is the concern of everybody in the society. Oxford Advance Learner’s Dictionary defines performances as the act or process of carrying out something or execution of an action, a repetitive act, fulfillment or implementation (Hornby, 2000).
In this respect, teacher performance connotes the teachers’ role of teaching students in class and outside the class. The key aspects of teaching involve the use of instructional materials, teaching methods, regular assessment of students, making lesson plans, assessment of pupils, conduct of fieldwork, teachers’ participation in sports, attending school assembly and guidance and counseling.
Therefore, teacher job performance is the teacher’s ability to integrate the experience, teaching methods, instructional materials, knowledge and skills in delivering subject matter to students in and outside the classroom. Teacher performance in this study will be measured by regular and early reporting at school, participation in co-curricular activities, supervision of school activities, adequate teaching preparation (schemes of work, lessonplans), making and general punctuality among others.
PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF BUSINESS STUDIES TEACHERS IN AFIKPO EDUCATION ZONE, EBONYI STATE
- Statement of the Problem
The level of motivation of teachers remains central in the teaching job performance debates. Despite the fact that government has improved the teacher payroll management and made resources available for increase in the secondary school teachers’ salaries as a way of motivation, there has been deteriorating standards of professional conduct, including serious misbehaviour, poor preparation of teaching materials especially lesson notes, lack of continuous students’ assessment general poor professional performance, and teacher absenteeism are unacceptably high and rising. It is such a situation that prompted the researcher to conduct a study to establish the various extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors and how they had affected teachers’ performance in secondary schools in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
- Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of motivation on the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.Specifically, the studysought to:
- Job motivational factors that affect the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
- Environment motivational factors that affect theperformance ofbusiness studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
- Administrative policies that affect the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
- Impact of these motivational factors on the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
- Significance of the Study
This research will be of immense significance to the following: school administrators, government, parents, society, teachers, students as well as researchers in related field.
A study of this nature will enable the school administrators to be well informed on how best to manage schools by motivating the teachers, so that they can experience job satisfaction. With this, the goals and objectives expected in our schools will be more achievable because, in a situation where the teachers are not motivated in their work, there is every tendency that the goals of the schools cannot be actualized.
The findings generated by this study will enable the government to use all the available resources tomotivate teachers, and make them feel happy in their jobs to realize educational objectives of the government. The government in all ramifications will be in a better position to motivate, retain and maintain the Secondary School teachers in order to enable them put more efforts that will lead to the achievement of higher productivity.
The parents through the findings of the study will realize the value of their money and efforts expended in training their children, since the secondary education system will be result—oriented as compared with the half —baked students being produced. This will enable parents to appreciate the dignity of labour on the efforts of teachers as there will be increased work output by the teachers.
Furthermore, through the findings of the study, the students’ interest to learning will be restored because, the teachers would devote their time in teaching and adequate guidance counselling exercise, the students’ achievements will be high, thereby reducing the mental agony and stress parents undergo when their wards and children perform poorly in both internal and external examination. More importantly, cheating and examination malpractices will be minimized as teachers tend to put up their best in the classroom. Also, the society will benefit from this study as the chained fallouts from strike actions by the teachers such as examination frauds, half-baked graduates and other consequent societal evils will be reduced to a minimum.
The study will help to arouse the morale of teachers.The study will certainly be useful in identification of some strategies that will help to improve teachers’ willingness and their working conditions, at the same time counteract the factors that lower the teachers’ motivation. It would increase productivity, thereby encouraging the intellectual output from secondary schools and make the teachers compete favourably with their counterparts in other education zone and states in the federal republic of Nigeria.
Finally this study is of great benefit to researchers from different fields as the content of this study will serve as a reference material to researches in related areas.
- Scope of the Study
This research study was limited to Afikpo Education Zone of Ebonyi State. Four secondary schools was used for the study and the area is on the impact of motivation on teacher’s performance. Regarding its content scope, the study investigated whether motivation of teachers affect their moral to perform well. On the other hand, extrinsic motivation will include externally administered rewards like salary, free accommodation, free meals, weekly duty and extra teaching allowances, advance payments in case of financial problems, leave of absence and free medical care among others.
- Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What job motivational factors affect the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State?
- What environment motivational factors affect the performance of business studies teachers’ in AfikpoEducation Zone, Ebonyi State?
- What are the administrative policies that affect the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State?
- What are the impacts of thesemotivational factors on the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State?
Ho1: There will be no significant difference between the mean rating of male and female business studies teachers on the job motivational factors affecting the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.
Ho2: There will be no significant difference between the mean rating of business studies teachers from schools in urban and rural area on the environmental motivational factors affecting the performance of business studies teachers in Afikpo Education Zone, Ebonyi State.