PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON WORKERS’ OF PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE CIVIL COMMISSION
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Thirty years ago, a prime article of faith for psychological science has it that all behaviour is motivated.
Today, discussions concerning the exact meaning of the statement have led some psychologists to wonder whether behaviour may be partly or even entirely unmotivated. To Cofer (1981), this pendulum movement characterizes the general history of the concept of motivation.
His article traces the development of this concept from Hobbes to current cognitive formulations. In his system, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) proposed that we choose what will give us pleasure and avoid what which will give us pain. Elton mayor (1880-1949) discovered that workers were not just concerned with pay but were also motivated by having their social needs met at work.
Therefore, it is an obvious fact that motivation emerged as a child of necessity in the quest for effective service delivery with a view to achieving organizational congruency. However, the subject of motivation is very central to human resources management because of its impact on employee productivity in an organization. Nevertheless, motivation is not just restricted to physical tangible things like money, but extends to intangible psychological derives.
Historically, Nigeria inherited British prototype of civil service which is structured in such a way as to achieve efficiency with least cost, at the detriment of the workforce. The practice of which has caused considerable, perhaps irreparable damage to the efficient and effective functioning of the workforce in the civil service. Thus, the predicament of the British prototype of civil service in Nigeria is traced or attributed to lack of motivation in the service.
In view of the above, Human behaviour needs to be motivated and directed towards successful accomplishment of assigned tasks. In other words, to enhance effectiveness and efficiency in the government, the civil servants must be properly motivated. The modern welfare state is loaded with welfarist functions and these functions have to be performed efficiently. If this has to be done, the civil servants must be adequately remunerated.
PROJECT TOPIC- IMPACT OF MOTIVATION ON WORKERS’ OF PRODUCTIVITY IN AN ORGANIZATION: A STUDY OF EBONYI STATE CIVIL COMMISSION
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
- To enhance effectiveness and efficiency in the government and directed towards successful accomplishment of a
There are certain needs, urges and derives of human beings that make them behave the way they do. Within the Nigerian context one may be compelled to ask why the scenario of low productivity in civil service is more pronounced than in any other organizations. Motivational studies are concerned with unearthing, these derives and urges. Personnel administration is very intimately involved with this subject.
Money is no longer the exclusive motivator as it was formerly believed to be. In addition to financial rewards, the work itself must be interesting to the individual to constitute a type of reward. One has to get the satisfaction that the job itself is good enough for him or her. As Agu (2003) has rightly observed, it is common to hear many Nigerian managers and administrators complain that the attitude to work and productivity of the average Nigerian worker, particularly in public sector, is generally poor. On the other hand, the worker complains that the system does not recognize and reward hard work.
Common features of the attitude to work in the public sector include lateness and absenteeism, sluggishness, frequent labor unrest, high rate of withdrawal, aggression, fixated behavior and looking forward to gratification and favours. The question asked then is, what is wrong with the Nigerian system and how can it be improved to enhance workers motivation and productivity?
So far, Ejiofor (1987) in Agu (2003) notes that much of the explanations of the problem with the system relate to the missing link in the motivational efforts of the managers and leaders. According to him, there is a missing link between the workers performance and reward in the system. Ejiofor and Agu contend that many Nigerian workers do not perceive their advancement on the job to be strictly dependent upon how hard they work.
Instead they believed that it depends on such extraneous factors as, who you know,’ god fatherism’, favoritism, nepotism and statism’, etc. Consequently, even where the zeal to work hard is naturally present in the Nigerian worker, it could not be manifested because he/she feels that the efforts would neither be recognized nor rewarded or at worse he/she can get the desired out come by building the necessary “connections”.
Another demotivating factor is the reward system itself, it is generally considered to be poor and not commensurate with workers efforts and economic conditions. The imbalance is mainly attributable to the poor economic conditions experienced in the county. Since 1980’s economic conditions have been harsh with dwindling value of income. Consequently, a salaried worker finds it difficult to make ends meet.
The situation however, is further compounded by the African family pattern characterized by heavy extended families and other dependents, the financial problem of the average worker is usually enormous. In the struggle to make ends meet, workers who deal with the members of the public directly or indirectly ask for tips and favours from them before they perform their official responsibilities.
The motivational force is on the gratification the worker receives without which he does not consider hard work necessary.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTION
In a bid to proffer lasting solutions to the lingering problems inherent in the system of reward and the missing link between the workers performance and reward in civil service it has resulted to the following critical questions with serious curiosity
- How does government/civil service low reward system affect workers level of productivity in Ebonyi state?
- To what extent does lack of job satisfaction affect workers level of productivity in an organization.
- To what extent does lack of merit in workers promotion and advancement affect productivity in civil service.
1.4 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this study is to identify the impact of motivation on workers productivity in Ebonyi state civil service, with a view to addressing the numerous problems inhibiting the motivational efforts of Ebonyi state government.
However, the study is specifically concerned with the following:
- To identify how civil service low reward system affect workers level of productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
- To determine how lack of job satisfaction impinges on workers level of productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
- To investigate the extent to which lack of merit in workers regular promotion and advancement affects productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The researcher adopted NULL (Ho) and Alternative (HA) hypotheses here in tackling the subject matter of this research.
- HA: There is a significant relationship between civil service low reward system and low productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between civil service low reward system and low productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
- HA: There is a significant relationship between lack of job satisfaction and level of productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between lack of job satisfaction and level of productivity in Ebonyi State civil service.
- HA: Lack of merit in workers promotion and advancement significantly affect productivity in Ebonyi state civil service.
Ho: Lack of merit in workers promotion and advancement does not significantly affect productivity in Ebonyi State civil service.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The value or contributions of this research to existing knowledge are as follows:
This research is designed to provide necessary information to workers, Government, research institutions, policy markers, public and private companies on issues relating to motivation of workers in relation to productivity in an organization.
This research will serve as a guide particularly to Ebonyi State civil service commission in their budgetary estimates with due emphasis on the various demands of workers with a view to improving workers productivity.
This research work, will serve as a basis for confirming or rejecting any existing findings on motivation with a view to recommending such to organizations.
The work will provide sound ideas on the problems of maintaining optimum level of productivity through motivation in an organization.
1.7 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
In this study, the researcher adopted the Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory. The theory is considered to be most appropriate and suitable in this research, due to the nature and dimension of the subject matter being researched about. A hierarchy need theory by Abraham Maslow (1954), a clinical physiologist is one of the most widely used theories for the study of motivation in organization. According to Maslow, man always has needs to satisfy and that people do not randomly need or want things, but rather their complex needs are ordered in a hierarchy of importance. Maslow framework was based on three fundamental assumptions:
- People are want beings whose needs can influence their behaviour ie, the need network for people is very complex, affecting the behaviour of an individual at any one time.
- Needs are arranged according to a hierarchy of importance from the basic physiological need to the complex self- actualization needs.
- Regardless of culture, individuals have a set of needs that tend to arise after lower ones have been reasonably and relatively satisfied.
Maslow therefore classified these needs into five basic categories, organized into successive levels or hierarchy of importance as in their ascending order starting with the lowest (most basic needs).
Source: Okpata F.O. (2004:52) Public Administration theory and practice.
Psychological needs, are the basic needs of people. An organization must provide the workers with a salary that allows them to afford adequate living condition.
Safety needs: As soon as the psychological needs are satisfied, safety needs appear. Security needs involve relief from threat of bodily harm, relief from fear or loss of one’s job.
Social needs: Once the individual has satisfied his two basic needs an acceptance to love and beloved comes up. He values friendship affection, interaction, companionship and the sense of belonging.
Ego/Esteem needs: At this stage, the individual has need for recognition, accomplishment, achievement and the need for self respect. He wants his contribution to be recognized and appreciated by management.
Self- Actualization needs: This is the fifth need in Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. It is called fulfillment need. This is the need for an employee to reach his highest potential at workplace or in conquering his environment. Laying credence to Maslow’s postulation, Nwachukwu (1988) in his motivational theory holds that a need creates tension in the individual who moves in a given direction in order to achieve the desired objectives which reduces the tension. Consequently, a satisfied need motivates while an unsatisfied need does not motivate.
However, the theory of hierarchy of needs implies that motivation is goal oriented.
1.8 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study is only limited to Ebonyi State civil service commission.srisng order eeds higher order needs y in the internal events of day-to-day life .
The research work has been constrained by number of factors which includes:
Shortage of related relevant materials, which account for the low quantity of data collected, and the discouraging attitude of some respondents which a times results to post- ponement of interview.
In addition, the researcher found it difficult in retrieving some of the research instruments administered on the respondents.
1.9 OPERATIONALISATION OF THE KEY CONCEPTS
- Impact: Impact within the context of this study means a noticeable effect on an object. It shows evidence of deficiency or efficiency as a result of an action.
- Productivity: Also within the context of this research, productivity refers to the efficiency with which things are produced. It refers to the “relation between input and output, efforts and results expenditure and income, actual performance and standard performance and between actual and maximum possible results”. It describes the relationship between resources consumed in the process of generating effective output and the output so produced.
- Motivation: This is a force that moves individual worker to take action. It is the set of force that determine workers behaviour, its form, direction, intensity and duration.
- Workers: These are human beings who are employed by the employers to work in an existing organization.
- Civil service: This is an arm of the executive branch of government charged with the responsibility of executing government policies and programs. Civil servants are those employed in a civil capacity and whose salaries are paid by the money voted in by the parliament.