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This research titled, “Impact of Welfare Scheme in Enhancing Higher Productivity in Nigeria Civil Service” this research is aimed at ascertaining the perceived welfare scheme in Ebonyi State civil servant, to determine the relationship between welfare service and increase productivity, to determine the correlation between well articulated welfare services and industrial harmony to public organizations and to establish the extent the absence of a welt articulated, well- executed welfare scheme can impede performance. The researcher adopted a survey research method data collection and analysis. Based on the analysis it was recommended that government should orient or sensitize its employees on welfare scheme, government and private should ensure that motivation incentives should be based on merit and hard work, government should introduction more welfare packages to enhance productivity and Ebonyi state government should make effective use of its welfare to enable it civil servants to it out their best.



1.1 Background to the Study

With the emergence of modem states and the development of the parliamentary system of government, the civil service evolved as the bedrock of the executive arm of government. It’s main task came to be the implementation and execution of the policies decided on by the legislature or those appointed by the legislature to carry on the executive work of government. In accomplishing this task the civil service has found itself involved in the formulation of policy and advising generally on policy matters.

Consequently, the civil service is now also responsible for the management of the machinery of government and carrying out the day-to-day duties that public administration demands. Hence, in the formulation of policies by the legislature, the civil service supply the political boss with all the information necessary for the right decision. Civil servants must therefore be constantly engaged in gathering facts and preparing findings that may lead to change in policy or lead to policy decisions; they assist in drafting the law which is designed to carry out the desired program.

However, one unique role of the civil service is that it stands for the continuity of policy as far as possible. The concern of the civil service is for the good of the nation as a whole, irrespective of the political party in power. Its task is lay the national point of view before each minister that comes. In this way, the civil service observes strict political neutrality, while ensuring the continuity of policy based on overall national interest.

Moreover, for civil servants to really perform these task efficiently and effectively, he must be highly motivated and their welfare scheme must be taken care of the essence of all motivational efforts is to increase employee productivity ( Nwachukwu 1987). Money is an important incentive that motivates a man to work. A variety of incentive systems have been tried from piece-work to the Scanlon plan with varying degree of success.

It is against this background that a comprehensive and systematic analysis of the welfare services in the civil service via its impacts on productivity become necessary. There is no doubt that the civil services ought to be a result oriented one. But the extent it has been productive remains very much in doubt. And it has been asserted that civil servants in the country, with special reference to the civil servants in Ebonyi State, wants to put in their best, while working for the government, but the most services factor militating against the performance is the inability of various government to integrate their welfare into the scheme of things.

it is in realization of this that Whitemore, (1977), opined that “in addition to any statuary obligation which management (including government) must exercise the general welfare of employee in terms of health, safety and working conditions and environment assumed additional importance. The issue of monetization caused labour to go on strike, labour are not treated the way it suppose to be, forgetting that, the role of labour to the smooth functioning of public policies makes labour leaders part of the protocol list of the government.

It is from this area that labour leaders are closer to the government and could give timely inputs or intelligence information, which they posses at all times. It took the opportunity of the monetization dialogue with the personal intervention of Governor Egwu, to formally introduce the Joint public service Negotiating council (JPSNC) of Ebonyi state after decade-long efforts. Most trade unions are yet to be put in their proper footing in Ebonyi state.

It is the naïve and ugly situation that paints labour in bad picture as trouble makers. It is only under crisis situations that labour leaders forced to see and discuss with the chief executive; a period when tempers are high. There is need for periodic symbolic interactions between workers and their employers under workers forum Eke, (2007).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The Ebonyi State civil service exhibits all the features of any other civil service in the country. A closer look reveals that the absence of such services like regular supply of electricity, water, bus services, total absence of government houses for the workers, bathroom and toilet in office and lack of insurance policy for the workers are those factors which rendered civil service in Ebonyi state immobile. In Ebonyi state, workers welfare service are not rendered in a way it suppose to be, pension and gratuity are not given to the people who retired at a time it suppose to be. In order to fulfill the research objective, the following research questions were posed and would be addressed.

  1. To what extent do civil servants in Ebonyi State perceive welfare service as an instrument of productivity?
  2. What is the relationship between the provision of welfare services and productivity in the Ebonyi State civil service?
  3. What are things that constitute welfare services in Ebonyi State civil service and how are they administered?
  4. Identify the problems associated with the provision and administration of Welfare services and how they can resolved in Ebonyi State Civil Service

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the work is to examine the impact of welfare scheme in enhancing higher productivity in Nigeria civil service. Specific objectives are to:

  1. Determine the extent to which civil servants in Ebonyi Perceive welfare as instrument of productivity.
  2. To determine the relationship between welfare service and increase productivity in Ebonyi State Civil Service.
  3. To Ascertain the things that constitute welfare services in the Ebonyi State Civil Service and how they are administration.
  4. To establish the extent to which the absence of a well articulated, well- executed welfare scheme can impede performance.

1.4     Significance of the Study

This study has both theoretical and practical significance. Theoretically, the study provides a theoretical framework for the understanding of the impact of welfare scheme in enhancing higher productivity in the Nigerian civil service. Therefore considering the pivotal role of civil servant in general, such information will be of immense help for policy formulation on the development of Nigeria civil servants. The result of the study will equally be of help to other researchers who may want to research on such topic or related topics on development in the academia in the future. On the practical significance, the study will draw attention of, and enlighten both the government and stakeholders in the area of implement policies in the Nigeria civil service.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Based on the above problem, the following hypotheses was suggested.

1.4 Research Hypotheses

H0: Civil servant in Ebonyi State do not perceive welfare scheme as an instrument of productivity.

H0: There is no significant relationship between welfare scheme and higher productivity in Ebonyi State Civil Service.

H0: Fringe benefits and allowances do not constitute welfare service in Ebonyi State Civil Service

H0: Absence of well articulated, well executed welfare scheme constitute impediments to higher productivity in Ebonyi State Civil Service.

  • Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is limited to following ministries, Ministry of women and social services Abakaliki, Ministry of Education Abakaliki, Civil service commission Abakaliki, Ministry of information Abakaliki, Ministry of health Abakaliki, Ministry of Establishment Abakaliki and Ministry of works Abakaliki all in Ebonyi state.

1.7 Limitations of the Study

During the cause of this work the researcher suffered certain limitations:

Problem of money, the researcher found it difficult, due to the huge financial involvement in the research coupled with the congested academic activities of the researcher.

Also problem of transportation, the researcher went to the ministries mentioned above several times for the collection of the material relevant to the study, which also involved huge amount of money because of how motorcyclist riders increases transportation caused by headmen. There was also the problem of textbooks relevant to this work not being available including journals, periodicals and magazines.

1.9 Theoretical Framework

It is like creating an atmosphere of suspicion if one is to analyze the impact of welfare scheme in enhancing higher productivity in Nigeria civil service in the contemporary world without reference to productivity. The researcher adopted social contract theory by the French political philosopher Jeans Jacques Rousseau as the framework of analysis. This paradigm critically asserted that good government exist for the welfare of the governed. According to the theory of citizen having freely surrendered part of their freedom to the government they subjecting themselves to the laws of the land, have entered into contract with the government which should in turn provide defense, security of life and properly and basic human welfare needs such as electricity, pip bone water, good roads, free medical care and prices of finished goods to the affordable rata to the citizenry. It is imperative to note that when the working class (civil servants ) are been provided with all the necessary entitlements such as prompt payment of salary/wages, pension and gratuity, regular supply of electricity, water, bus services, insurance policy for the workers thereby enhance productivity. This assertion is justified by Amaechi I.E.E.      (1984). When he contended that “fair and adequate compensation or employees is unquestionably one Of the most significant of a satisfied and efficient work farce towards maximum productivity.

The theory emphatically pinpointed out that the working class (civil servants) in the service can be motivated to work with more commitment when their welfare are properly protected, thereby enhance productivity.

The theory also eliminated some of the items that can help for the improvement of the living standard of the civil servant such items include, prompt payment of salaries/wages, regular supply of electricity, water, good road among others. When all the aforementioned are provided to them it will act as an encouraging agent for them to be more productive in their various fields of endeavors. This will in turn enhance productivity in the civil service.

The theory also emphasis on the fact that good government exist for the welfare of the governed, which in its digest form, it must kike, to meat up with the expectation of the governed, which will in turn contribute to the adequate formulation initiations of the government policies and programmes, relating it to the subject matter, when those in the civil service are given such participatory chances, it can adduce them to make use of their greatest knowledge in the pursuit of the government goals/objectives thereby enhance productivity in the civil service.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Bureaucracy: This is defined as the ideal structure for managing large complex organization, irrespective of whether it is the church military establishment, state department, political parties, or business organization.

Performance: This is defined as a “multiplicative function of motivation and ability.

Integrity: “Integrity is the aspect of ones character rooted in his conviction which serves to defer him from taking advantage of his position or strength to gain at the expense of his organization customer, client or subordination.

Efficiency: It refers to the relation between input and output, effort and results, expenditure and incomes actual performance and standard possible results” it resources consumed in the process generating effective output so produced.

Effectiveness: This refers to the extent to which output is in line with organizational objectives.

Motivation: This can be defined as an entity that impelled one to action of a particular type”.


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