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PROJECT TOPIC- IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF GARRI THROUGH ENRICHMENT WITH BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF GARRI THROUGH ENRICHMENT WITH BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

CHAPTER 1

  • INTRODUCTION

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) provides energy as a dominant staple food crop of great importance for the nutrition of over 500 million people in the tropical world most especially in Africa and in many developing countries (Bankole et al., 2013). Irtwange and Achimba (2009) observed that cassava appears to be the major staple food that matches the population growth in Nigeria.

Cassava can be transformed into various products such as ‘gari’, ‘fufu’, ‘lafun’ and many other West African traditional dishes (Obiele et al., 2004; Afoakwa et al., 2010). Gari is creamy, white granular flour with a slightly fermented flavor and a slightly sour taste made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava tuber (IITA, 2005). It is the most popular cassava product consumed in West Africa and the most important food product in the diet of millions of Ghanaians and Nigerians (Afoakwa et al., 2010).

Garri has a very low level of protein probably because of this; kwashiorkor is believed to be prevalent in the area where cassava is the staple items of diet. With the prevalence of malnutrition in the society, there is need to fortify our diets with protein using a cheap source of protein that is found in legume family. Though gari is never eaten alone as a full meal but rather taken with vegetable stew to satisfy the other nutrient requirements and this also depends on the animal protein content of the stew; hence, fortification of gari with non-animal protein will be another alternative (Bankole et al., 2013).

In the continuous search for solution to the problem of malnutrition in its various forms, mainly among the people of the developing countries, there is the need to improve the nutritive quality of our local food through better processing and enrichment. Gari is one of such basic foods that can be enriched because it is widely eaten in the west and central Africa and it is a staple food for majority of the people in the southern part of Nigeria. About ten million tonnes of gari is produced in Nigeria alone per annum (Okafor, 1992).

Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean (L) Verdc.) a legume is herbaceous plant. It is an important item in the diet of West African. It is a source of plant protein. It can be consumed boiled after freshly harvested, roasted and eaten with palm kernel as a snack when dry (Alozie et al., 2009). Bambara groundnut is eaten in various ways, either alone or mixed with maize, rice, fish or gari. The crop is sometimes grown as cover cropbecause it is valuable for improving soil fertility.

Bambara contain 7.3 % moisture, 18 to 24 % protein, 6.0 to 6.5 % fat and 60 to 63 % carbohydrates (Eltayeb et al., 2011). Consequently, several studies have examined the fortification of cassava meal with soya bean protein extract. (Obadina et al., 2006). Bambara groundnut is an important source of dietary protein, particularly when intake from animal sources is low or not available (Graham and Vance, 2003).

Its seeds either ripe or immature contain about 20 % protein, 60 % carbohydrate and 7 % oil (National Research Council, 2006). The present study is concerned mainly with the incorporation of bambara nut flour and its fortification with gari in other to convert it to a good basic food that is affordable and that can supply the minimal protein requirement of a balanced diet and also allow for maximum utilization of local raw materials.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF GARRI THROUGH ENRICHMENT WITH BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

1.1       Statement of the problem

High protein foods of animal origin such as meat, fish, milk and eggs are very expensive especially to the low income earners who are the majority in the population of West African sub region. Ijarotimi and Keshinro (2012) revealed that protein-energy malnutrition among children is the major health challenges in developing countries particularly Nigeria. Gari has a very low level of protein probably because of this; kwashiorkor is believed to be prevalent in the area where cassava is the staple items of diet. With the prevalence of malnutrition in the society, there is need to improve gari with protein using a cheap source of protein that is found in legume family.

The market demand of gari is in no doubt very high but consumers are becoming more aware of quality and are ready to pay more for good quality gari. If producers in this area are to remain relevant in view of this, it has become necessary to evaluate the quality of gari enriched with bambara ground nut. It contains sufficient quantities of protein, carbohydrate and fat.

1.2       Broad objective

            The main objective is to improve the quality of gari through enrichment with bambara groundnut.

The above objective is translated into the specific objectives as follows:

  1. To produce gari fortified with bambara groundnut.
  2. To determine the proximate and chemical composition of the product.

To evaluate the anti-nutritional factors in the product.

PROJECT TOPIC- IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF GARRI THROUGH ENRICHMENT WITH BAMBARA GROUNDNUT

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