PROJECT TOPIC- INFLUENCE OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING ON STUDENTS’ DISCIPLINE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KABONDO DIVISION, KENYA
This study set to investigate the influence of guidance and counselling services in public secondary schools students’ discipline in Kabondo Division, Rachuonyo District. The researcher set objectives, which sought to determine the extent to which provision of guidance and counselling materials, teacher counsellors’ exposure, peer training, guest speakers and the time allocated to students counselling influenced students’ discipline in Kabondo Division, Kenya. The researcher used the descriptive survey design to carry out the research. The respondents for this study were 20 secondary
school principals, 20 teacher counsellors and 144 form 4 students. A pilot study was conducted to test the validity and reliability of the instruments. Data was analyzed using percentages and descriptive analysis. The study findings revealed that guidance and counselling services were offered in the schools and 82.4% of the principals considered it important but lacked the necessary material and literature support. From the literature review it is found that character formation is achieved through intense formal and informal programmes for guidance and counselling. It is through guidance and counselling that students remain disciplined and focused in life. Collins (2002) indicates that through guidance and counselling students are assisted to be disciplined and become able to deal with challenges and realities they face in their academic, social and physical environment.
The following were the recommendations made .The principals in secondary schools should put in place guidance and counselling services and provide an office where privacy is made a priority. This will encourage more students to visit the office.
Guidance and counselling teachers should be well trained on how to carry out their duties. To have adequate provision of guidance and counselling materials as well as application of peer counselling, there is need to make proper budgeting for the same in terms of finances and time respectively. Guest speakers should be invited to provide the counselling services to the students in areas of concern.
Since this study was based in Kabondo Division, a predominantly local area, it is therefore suggested that a replication of this study be carried out in an urban setting. A study on student discipline in relation to parent or guardian upbringing should be carried out. The influence of minimal integration of guidance and counselling in selected subjects in the curriculum should be researched on. The objective is to curb the long standing problem of lack of time to practice guidance and counselling. To integrate guidance and counselling in the curriculum is to ensure that students move up the educational ladder with guidance and counselling knowledge.
1.1 Background of the study
Guidance and counselling as a movement was started in America at the beginning the
|of 20 Century as a reaction to change process in an industrialized society.|
Guidance and counselling services were set up within the department of education in September 1968 when the recommendations made by Louis, a consultant sent over to Malta by United Nation’s Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), were taken up, Summit (1997). Globally, guidance and counselling services are essential elements in discipline management of people in all societies. It could be difficult for any society to function well without the exercise of discipline. School guidance and counselling programmes have therefore been introduced to assist students overcome the number of challenges they experience at home and at school. Nziramasanga (1999) states that because of many pressures imposed on
the family, parents tend to have little time with their children to give them the necessary guidance. The parents expect the school to provide solutions to the indiscipline in secondary schools caused by their children. UNESCO (2002:2) adds that “African adults have become more concerned with earning money and are less occupied with many traditional practices that formerly contributed to the upbringing of young people”. Rapid sociological changes emanating from modernization and urbanization stress students.
In Malawi the need for guidance and counselling is recognized when a survey was done of 20 school counsellors in southern and central regions and the main problems examined. It was proven that, there is great need for a clear rationale and guidelines for Guidance and Counselling programmes, Taylor and Francis (1998). The main goal is to help the counselee learn to deal more effectively with himself and the reality of his environment. Allis and Kame (1999) conducted a cross-section survey on indiscipline among 2170 preparatory and secondary school students enrolled in the mainstream governmental schools in Alexandria in Egypt. Indiscipline among school students and its predictors were investigated.
Few indiscipline cases were related to family background whereas the majority was related to the children themselves. Schools are social systems which have several objectives to achieve and the role of guidance and counselling is vital in shaping the discipline of the students.
Counselling is a process of helping individuals or group of people to gain self- understanding in order to be themselves. Burks and Steffler (1979) see
counselling as a professional relationship between a trained Counsellor and a client. Olayinka (1972) defined it to be a process whereby a person is helped in a face-to-face relationship while Makinde (1983) explained counselling as an enlightened process whereby people help others by encouraging their growth. Counselling is a process designed to help clients understand and clarify personal views of their life space, and to learn to reach their self-determined goals through meaningful, well-informed choices and a resolution of problems of an emotional or interpersonal nature. It believes that every human individual has the potential for self-growth, self-development and self-actualization.
Although guidance and counselling was